K-12 Science Supervisor
New Haven Schools
54 Meadow Street, 3rd Floor
New Haven, CT 06519
New Haven Public Schools
OUTLINE OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT DAY SCIENCE
Assessing Experiments SEP 18th
8:00 – 8:15 Welcome, Orientation, Breakfast
8:30 – 9:45
-Fill out teacher info form
Whole Group, Table discussion: What makes a good experiment, designing experiments,
10:00 – 12:00 Break out by grade. Practice embedded task/lab:
seventh grade: matter (staying afloat) A305
eighth grade: bridges A301
ninth grade: plastics A308
tenth grade: enzymes A304
eleventh + grade: matter (cold packs) A307
1:00- 2:20 break out groups, design/examine assessment questions, discussion on scaffolding to teach skills needed for assessment. Examination of holistic rubric.
2:35-3:00 group share, draft of initial quarterly assessment.
Teacher Info Form (Turn IN)
Open Ended Experimentation Notes
Draft New Haven Science Standards
Workshop Evaluation (Turn IN )
Science Professional Development Draft Schedule
Lab Report Rubric Scoring
Open Ended Questions Scoring
Grade Level Tasks, Scoring, Example Assessments
NEW HAVEN SCIENCE!
WHY TEACH SCIENCE?
K-12 SCIENCE SUPERVISOR
-DRAFT NEW HAVEN SCIENCE STANDARDS AND PACING GUIDE
-QUARTERLY ASSESSMENTS BASED ON EMBEDDED TASKS
Using science embedded tasks, teachers will
-examine learning goals for experiments.
-review common vocabulary and methods
-conduct instruction in hands-on embedded task experiments
-design embedded task follow-up assessments
-be able to use holistic rubrics to score student work on embedded task follow ups.
Core Scientific Inquiry, Literacy and Numeracy
How is scientific knowledge created and communicated?
POWER CONTENT STANDARDS
· Scientific inquiry is a thoughtful and coordinated attempt to search out, describe, explain and predict natural phenomena.
· Scientific inquiry progresses through a continuous process of questioning, data collection, analysis and interpretation.
· Scientific inquiry requires the sharing of findings and ideas for critical review by colleagues and other scientists.
· Scientific literacy includes the ability to read, write, discuss and present coherent ideas about science.
· Scientific literacy includes the ability to search for and assess the relevance and credibility of scientific information found in various print and electronic media.
· Scientific numeracy includes the ability to use mathematical operations and procedures to calculate, analyze and present scientific data and ideas.
INQ1. Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigation.
INQ2. Read, interpret and examine the credibility and validity of scientific claims in different sources of information.
INQ3. Formulate a testable hypothesis and demonstrate logical connections between the scientific concepts guiding the hypothesis and the design of the experiment.
INQ4. Design and conduct appropriate types of scientific investigations to answer different questions.
INQ5. Identify independent and dependent variables, including those that are kept constant and those used as controls.
INQ6. Use appropriate tools and techniques to make observations and gather data.
INQ7. Assess the reliability of the data that was generated in the investigation.
INQ8. Use mathematical operations to analyze and interpret data, and present relationships between variables in appropriate forms.
INQ9. Articulate conclusions and explanations based on the results of the research, and assess their validity based on the design of the investigation.
INQ10. Communicate about science in different formats, using relevant science vocabulary, supporting evidence and clear logic.
FEEDBACK AND DISCUSSION
ACTIVITY 2: EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
What makes a good experiment?
What are the parts to a good experiment?
What is the scientific method?
PROPOSAL: Consistent approach to terminology to designing good experiments.
SCIENTIFIC METHOD: No one "right" number of steps!
Includes the idea of
finding out something to investigate (the "problem"),
coming up with a theory or hypothesis based on observations: how one property (chemical, physical, environmental, biological) affects another.
designing a good experiment to test the idea, and making a prediction.
conducting the experiment.
organizing and analyzing the results.
drawing a conclusion and stating the validity.
OBSERVE, ORGANIZE, CONCLUDE
One property affects another property
(factor, stimuli, characteristic, measurement, observation, etc..), both can be observed/measured.
CAUSE and EFFECT
Independent and Dependent
"Manipulated" Measured Result
All other properties remain the same, they are "controlled".
A "VALID" experiment is one that assures that the result output (dependent variable) is due to the input (independent variable), not to any other factor.
It also has a starting point to
compare to, the "control"
An experiment is a controlled procedure designed to test a hypothesis. There are several parts to any good scientific experiment.
HYPOTHESIS: The educated guess, or conclude part of observe, organize, and conclude. Usually it is stated as how one physical property affects another physical property. Example: I think that
the amount of light causes plant growth. (Light affects height)
PREDICTION: This is what you think is going to happen in your particular experiment, based on the hypothesis. A hypothesis can usually be tested in many ways, so it is important to predict for your specific experiment. A prediction usually indicates how you are going to MEASURE each of the properties
Example: I think that a plant growing in dark will be shorter than one in the light.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE: This is the factor, or variable that you change. This is the physical property that you have direct control over to change. It should be the ONLY difference between the two groups for it to be a good experiment. It is the CAUSE property mentioned in the hypothesis.
Example: the amount of light.
DEPENDENT VARIABLE: This is the factor, or property that you measure for, or the result. It could be different between the groups, or it could be the same. You don't know the value of this variable until the end of the experiment. This is the EFFECT property mentioned in the hypothesis.
Example: how high the plant grows
CONTROL: All other variables should be the SAME in all groups, or they should be CONTROLLED.
A CONTROL GROUP is the group that is used as the basis for comparison. It could be: the BEFORE part of a before and after experiment (mixing two chemicals to see a color change, the control group is the setup before they were mixed). It could be: the "normal, or it could be the group in which the value of the independent variable is zero.
EXPERIMENTAL GROUP(S): The experimental group differs from the control group in just ONE factor or variable. This is the group that is usually mentioned in the prediction. It can also be the "after" part of a before and after experiment. It is the actual physical set of objects that you have changed or are doing something to.
Example: a plant set in a room with only a small light bulb.
CONCLUSION: after organizing the results of the observations made in the experiment, you check to see whether you are right by stating whether your predictions came true, and what you found out about the hypothesis
A good experiment, besides having careful observations, and using instruments, will always have a control group to compare to, even though it is not always clear which is the control or "normal" group, and which is the experimental group. But it is also very important to have groups in which only ONE property or variable is changed at a time, so that you can be sure that the property is the cause of whatever effect you are measuring.
OPEN ENDED ACTIVITIES ( CAPT), ask students to design good experiments, with a cause and effect. (or to determine which cause has the greatest effect, and what the trend there is).
USING THE EXAMPLES AS A STARTING POINT DISCUSS IN GROUPS:
How do you introduce the important points of experimental design in your science class?
What are some good ways to teach the scientific method and parts of good experiments throughout the year?
What other resources are needed or steps should the system take to help infuse this common theme throughout the science curriculum?