Part III

 

Curriculum Embedded Tasks

 

·    Strand I: Energy Transformation

-Solar Cooker, Laboratory Investigation

-Connecticut Energy Use, STS Activity

 

·    Strand II: Chemical Structures and Properties

-Synthetic Polymers, Laboratory Investigation

-Plastics Controversy, STS Activity

 

·    Strand III: Global Interdependence

-Acid Rain, Laboratory Investigation

-Connecticut Brownfield Sites, STS Activity

 

·    Strand IV: Cell Chemistry and Biotechnology

-Enzyme, Laboratory Activity

-Labeling Genetically Altered Foods, STS Activity

 

·    Strand V: Genetics, Evolution and Biodiversity

-Yeast Population Dynamics, Laboratory  

 Investigation

-Human Population Dynamics, STS Activity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grades 9-10

Curriculum-Embedded Performance Task

                  Strand I: Energy Transformations

 

 

 

 

 

File written by Adobe Photoshop® 5.2

 

 

Solar Cooker 

 

Laboratory Investigation

                          Teacher Materials

              

 


Renewable Energy

 

Teacher Materials

 

This curriculum-embedded science performance task is related to the content standards and expected performances for Grades 9-10, as described in the Core Science Curriculum Framework, under Scientific Inquiry, Literacy and Numeracy, Strand I – Energy Transformations. 

 

Targeted Content Standard

9.3 - Various sources of energy are used by humans and all have advantages and disadvantages.

Targeted Scientific Inquiry, Literacy and Numeracy Standards

D INQ. 1  Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigation.

D INQ. 3  Formulate a testable hypothesis and demonstrate logical connections between the scientific concepts guiding the hypothesis and the design of the experiment.

D INQ. 4  Design and conduct appropriate types of scientific investigations to answer                 different questions.

D INQ. 5  Identify independent and dependent variables, including those that are kept constant and those used as controls.

D INQ. 6  Use appropriate tools and techniques to make observations and gather data.

D INQ. 7  Assess the reliability of the data that was generated in the investigation.

D INQ. 9  Articulate conclusions and explanations based on research data, and assess results based on the design of an investigation.

 

Learning objective:

 

Students will be able to use solar energy to heat water and understand the design factors that influence the effectiveness of capturing solar energy in this context.

 

Listed below are the suggested materials for the laboratory exercise. You may use additional materials if they are available.

 

 Materials:

 

           heat lamps or sunlight                          tape

           cardboard                                             thermometer

           aluminum foil                              water        

           containers for water                              colored paper or paint

           safety goggles

          

 

Considerations:        

 

Teams of two students are ideal for laboratory work, but circumstances may necessitate teams of three students.  Students will need a minimum of 90 minutes to complete this laboratory exercise if you expect their lab reports to be written during class time.  You should allow at least 60 minutes of instructional time for the students to design and conduct their experiment and a minimum of 30 minutes for the students to write about their results.  As an alternative, the students can write their lab report for homework.  These time frames are merely suggestions. Additional time is appropriate if the circumstances and schedule at your school call for it.  A sample scoring rubric is provided for your convenience or you may design one of your own.

 

If the weather is unfavorable and the laboratory exercise must take place indoors, heat lamps can be used as an alternative to sunlight.   If your students are unfamiliar with solar cookers, various designs and photographs of solar cookers may be found at these and many other sites:

 

http://solarcooking.org

http://pbskids.org/zoom/activities/sci/solarcookers.html

 

 

The curriculum-embedded task can be integrated into a unit on energy sources and used in any high school physical or Earth science course.  The curriculum-embedded task is intended to be used as a formative assessment during the appropriate instructional unit.  The Connecticut Academic Performance Test – Generation III will include some open-ended items that will assess scientific inquiry and communication skills in the same context as this task.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Curriculum-Embedded Laboratory Investigation Scoring Rubric

 

Statement of the Problem and Hypothesis

3       The problem and hypothesis are stated clearly and completely.  Clear identification of independent and dependent variables.

2       The problem and hypothesis are stated adequately.  Adequate identification of independent and dependent variables.

1       The problem and/or hypothesis are poorly stated.  Poor identification of independent and dependent variable.

0       The statement of the problem and/or hypothesis is very limited or missing altogether.  No identification of independent and dependent variables.

 

Experimental Design

3       The experimental design matches the stated problem.  Variables are held constant.  The procedures are clear, complete and replicable.  A control is included when appropriate.

2       The experimental design generally matches the stated problem.  Attempt at holding variables constant is made.  Procedures are generally complete.  Minor modifications or clarifications may be needed.

1       The experimental design matches the stated problem to some extent.  Little attempt to hold variables constant.  Procedures are incomplete.  Major modifications or clarifications may be needed.

0       The experimental design does not match the stated problem, is very incomplete or missing.  There is no attempt to hold variables constant.

 

Data Presentation

3       Data are well organized and presented in an appropriate manner.

2       Data are organized and presented in an appropriate manner.  Minor errors or omissions may be present.

1       Data are poorly organized or presented in an inappropriate manner.  Major omissions or errors may be present.

0       Data are very poorly organized or presented in an inappropriate manner or missing altogether.

 

Conclusion

3       Conclusions are fully supported by data and address the hypothesis.  Reliability of data and validity of conclusions are thoroughly discussed.

2       Conclusions are generally supported by data and address the hypothesis.  Minor errors in interpretation of results may be present. Discussion of reliability of data and validity of conclusions is limited.

1       Conclusions are supported by data and address the hypothesis to a limited extent.  Major errors in interpretation of results may be present. There is little discussion of the reliability of the data or validity of conclusions.

0       Conclusions are not supported by data, do not address the hypothesis or are missing.  There is no discussion of the reliability of data or validity of conclusions.

 

Excellent performance                   10-12 points

Proficient performance                  7-9 points

Marginal performance          4-6 points

Unsatisfactory performance 0-3 points

     Student Name:_____________         Class:_____

 

 

 

File written by Adobe Photoshop® 5.2

 

 

 

 Solar Cooker

 

            Laboratory Investigation

                  Student Materials


 

 

Solar Cooker

 

Student Materials

 

Most people in the United States use an electric stove or a natural gas stove to cook their food.  This is not the case in much of the world.  Approximately 50% of the people on Earth cook using fire from burning wood.  However, due to overuse, wood is becoming a scarce commodity in many countries.  In addition, burning wood is a major source of air pollution. 

 

One alternative to cooking with wood is using solar cookers.  These devices use energy from the sun to cook food without producing any pollution.  While there are many designs for solar cookers, a simple solar cooker can be made from everyday materials.  There are many factors that can influence the effectiveness of a solar cooker including the size of the collector, the orientation of the panel and the color of the container.

 

 

Your Task

 

You and your lab partner will design and conduct an experiment to investigate one factor that contributes to the effectiveness of a solar cooker in heating water. Factors you may want to investigate include: the shape of the collector, the shape of the water container, orientation of the collector, surface area or color of the container.

 

You have been provided with the following materials and equipment.  It may not be necessary to use all of the equipment that has been provided. 

 

Suggested materials:

 

heat lamps or sunlight                    tape

cardboard                             thermometer

aluminum foil                                water

container for water                        colored paper or paint

safety goggles

 

 


Designing and Conducting Your Experiment

 

 

1.  In your words, state the problem you are going to investigate.  Write a hypothesis using an “If … then … because …” statement that describes what you expect to find and why.  Include a clear identification of the independent and dependent variables that will be studied.

 

2.  Design an experiment to solve the problem.  Your experimental design should match the statement of the problem and should be clearly described so that someone else could easily replicate your experiment.  Include a control if appropriate and state which variables need to be held constant.

 

3.  Review your design with your teacher before you begin your experiment. 

 

4.  Conduct your experiment.  While conducting your experiment, take notes and organize your data into tables.

 

Safety note: Students must wear approved safety goggles and follow all safety instructions.

 

When you have finished, your teacher will give you instructions for cleanup procedures, including proper disposal of all materials.

 

 


                         Communicating Your Findings

 

Working on your own, summarize your investigation in a laboratory report that includes the following:

 

·      A statement of the problem you investigated.  A hypothesis (“If ... then … because …” statement) that described what you expected to find and why.  Include a clear identification of the independent and dependent variables.

 

·      A description of the experiment you carried out.  Your description should be clear and complete enough so that someone could easily replicate your experiment.

 

·      Data from your experiment. Your data should be organized into tables, charts and/or graphs as appropriate. 

 

·      Your conclusions from the experiment.  Your conclusions should be fully supported by your data and address your hypothesis.

 

·      Discuss the reliability of your data and any factors that contribute to a lack of validity of your conclusions.  Also, include ways that your experiment could be improved if you were to do it again.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grades 9-10

Curriculum-Embedded Performance Task

                  Strand I: Energy Transformations

 

 

 

 

 

File written by Adobe Photoshop® 5.2

 

 

Energy Uses in Connecticut 

 

              Science, Technology & Society                 Teacher Materials

              

 

 

 

 

                           Energy Uses in Connecticut

 

      Teacher Materials

 

This curriculum-embedded science performance task is related to the content standards and expected performances for Grades 9-10, as described in the Core Science Curriculum Framework, under Scientific Inquiry, Literacy and Numeracy, Strand I – Energy Transformations. 

 

 

Targeted Content Standard

9.3 - Various sources of energy are used by humans and all have advantages and disadvantages.

Targeted Scientific Inquiry, Literacy and Numeracy Standards

D INQ. 2  Read, interpret and examine the credibility and validity of scientific claims in different sources of information.

D INQ. 9  Articulate conclusions and explanations based on research data, and assess results based on the design of an investigation.

D INQ. 10 Communicate about science in different formats, using relevant science vocabulary, supporting evidence and clear logic.

 

 

 

Learning objective: 

 

Students will graph energy trends in Connecticut over several years and based on their research, they will explain the advantages and disadvantages as it relates to one trend in energy use.

 

 

Materials:

 

Access to computers/internet

Excel program

Graph paper and ruler (alternative)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Considerations:

 

        

If access to computers or the Excel program is difficult, the graphing portion may be done by hand.  Not all students are equally comfortable with Excel worksheets and the related program features.  Tutorial programs are available online and include features that will assist students in the conversion of units and graphing from spreadsheets.  Tutorials on the use of Excel programs may be found at the following websites and many others:

        

http://www.microsoft.com/education/Excel97Tutorial.mspx

         http://www.j-walk.com/ss/excel/usertips/index.htm

 

 

Should you prefer to have students work in metric units, you will want to provide them with the following equalities:   1 kW-hr = 3600 kJ = 2544 Btu (British thermal unit).

 

Two alternative Excel sheets are provided for differentiation purposes or you may use one of your own design.

 

 

 

 

                        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            Student Name_____________   Class_____

 

 

 

File written by Adobe Photoshop® 5.2

 

 

 

  Energy Uses in Connecticut

 

      Science, Technology & Society

                  Student Materials

 

  Grades 9-10
Energy Uses in Connecticut

 

Student Materials

 

Energy is used everyday to heat and light our homes, schools and businesses.  Have you ever thought about where the energy we use everyday comes from?   How have these energy sources changed over the last several decades?

 

You have been provided with a spreadsheet containing some information about energy use and its sources in Connecticut from 1960 through 2001.  Use this information and the Excel program to prepare a line graph showing the trends in the energy consumption from the following sources: coal; natural gas; nuclear; hydroelectric; and wood/waste over this time span. 

 

Your task is to choose one of the fuel sources (coal, natural gas, nuclear, hydroelectric or waste) and research the advantages and disadvantages of this particular energy trend as it is illustrated on the graph.  Does this trend support Connecticut’s initiative to significantly decrease the use of non-renewable resources by the year 2010?   Some support materials for the study of energy resources may be found at the websites listed below and many others.

 

Nuclear Energy Resources                                            

        

         Energy Information Administration: Nuclear

         http://www.eia.doe.gov/fuelnuclear.html

 

         Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology

         http://www.ne.doe.gov/

 

Hydroelectric Energy Resources

 

         National Hydropower Association

         http://hydro.org

 

         Power Matters: Hydroelectric Power

         http://www.tva.gov/power/hydro.htm

 

Biomass Energy Resources

 

         Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

         http://www.eere.energy.gov/RE/bio_basics.html

 

         Connecticut Clean Energy Fund

            http://ctcleanenergy.com/renewable/biomass_tech.html

 

 

Coal Energy Resources

 

         Office of Fossil Energy-U.S. Department of Energy

         www.fe.doe.gov/programs/powersystems/cleancoal/index.html

 

         Coal Fired Power Generation

         www.rst2.edu/ties/acidrain/IEcoal/how.htm

 

 

Natural Gas Energy Resources

 

         Adventures in Energy

         www.adventuresinenergy.org/main.swf

 

         Natural Gas Supply Organization

         www.naturalgas.org

 

        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Energy Information Administration

      Last updated 12/15/2004

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 7. Energy Consumption Estimates by Source, 1960-2001, Connecticut

 

 

 

Petroleum Products

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year

Coal

(Trillion Btu)

Natural Gas

(Trillion Btu)

 Asphalt & Road Oil

(Trillion Btu)

Aviation Gasoline

(Trillion Btu)

Distillate Fuel

(Trillion Btu)

Jet Fuel

(Trillion Btu)

Kerosene

(Trillion Btu)

LPG

(Trillion Btu)

Lubricants

(Trillion Btu)

Motor Gasoline

(Trillion Btu)

Residential Fuel

(Trillion Btu)

Other

(Trillion Btu)

Total Petroleum Prod.

(Trillion Btu)

Nuclear Electric Power

(Trillion Btu)

Hydroelectric Power

(Trillion Btu)

Wood and Waste

(Trillion Btu)

Other a,f

(Trillion Btu)

Net Interstate Electricity Flow/Losses

(Trillion Btu)

Total

(Trillion Btu)

1960

101.7

29.4

7.2

0.5

136.1

6.4

10.9

4.4

2.1

101.6

91.9

1.3

362.4

0

4.6

12.8

0

-2.8

508.2

1961

107.5

31.4

6.5

0.5

136.1

6.2

11.1

4.4

2.1

103.9

93.5

1.4

365.8

0

3.9

13.2

0

-3.5

518.4

1962

112.1

33.4

8

0.6

135.4

6.7

9.6

5

3.2

108.4

100.6

1.6

379

0

3.1

12.8

0

-3.4

536.9

1963

117.4

35.6

6.7

0.9

133.6

6.8

8

5.7

3.2

112.3

102.3

3

382.5

0

2.9

13.3

0

-4

547.7

1964

120.8

38.6

5.9

0.8

119.5

6.6

7.1

6.1

3.4

115.6

123.7

3.8

392.5

0

2.8

13.9

0

-2.3

566.3

1965

128.6

41.7

8.8

0.9

123.4

8

7.4

5.5

3.4

120.5

107.9

3.7

389.4

0

2

13.5

0

-3.2

572

1966

136.2

48.7

7.9

0.8

117.5

8.7

5.2

5.9

3.5

126

130.8

26.9

433.1

0

2.6

13.6

0

-4.3

630

1967

109.5

50.8

7

0.7

121.1

9.6

4.5

5.8

2.9

128.8

159.6

29.7

469.7

6.1

4.1

14

0

-6.3

647.9

1968

82.4

54.1

8

0.8

130

13.2

4.1

6.5

3.2

137.4

176.1

33.1

512.5

33.9

3.7

14.9

0

-26.2

675.4

1969

59.2

58.4

8.5

0.7

134.7

14.9

4.2

7.3

3.4

142.8

203.9

33.2

553.6

40.2

4.4

15.3

0

-36.3

694.8

1970

48.6

61.5

6.8

0.6

140.5

16.4

4.4

7

3.5

150.4

223.8

34

587.4

39.6

3.5

15.8

0

-34

722.4

1971

36.4

62.4

8.1

0.6

140.4

12.4

4.4

7.1

2.9

155.2

212.6

2.7

546.4

84.2

4.1

16.1

0

-64.9

684.7

1972

4.2

65

9.7

0.6

144.3

15.9

5.1

7.9

3.1

161.8

255.9

3.1

607.4

83.9

5.6

17.1

0

-63.1

720.2

1973

2.6

63.5

10.4

0.6

148.2

14.2

3.4

8.2

3.3

166

272.2

3.4

629.8

46.9

4.6

17.2

0

-18.8

746

1974

6.5

67.1

7.3

0.5

135.1

13.8

3.1

8

3.2

165.5

236.6

3.6

576.8

89

4.5

18

0

-44.7

717.2

1975

1.3

64.3

8.4

0.5

125.9

12

3.3

8.2

2.4

167.2

204.4

3.4

535.7

89.6

5.1

17.1

0

-20.8

692.3

1976

1.2

66.4

7.4

0.4

141.1

11

4.1

8.9

2.7

171.4

206.2

6.6

559.8

136.2

4

19.9

0

-40.5

746.9

1977

1.2

64.7

6.1

0.6

138.5

12.3

2.9

8.9

2.8

174

202.2

8

556.2

141.9

4.5

19.6

0

-34

754.1

1978

0.8

66

7.6

0.5

137.3

12

2.7

8

3

174.5

215.2

8.8

569.6

151.7

3.7

22.7

0

-39.2

775.4

1979

1.1

68.8

5.6

0.4

165.9

13.5

2.1

5.4

3.1

165.4

169.2

10.5

541.2

138.2

4.8

24.6

0

-14.5

764.1

1980

0.4

74.2

4.2

0.4

129.9

11.2

2.8

5.5

2.8

158.7

184.4

11

510.9

129.1

2.7

35.3

0

-20.6

731.8

1981

0.9

78.7

5.2

0.4

114.9

8.9

2.4

4.9

2.6

158.9

135.4

13.9

447.5

139.8

2.7

36.5

0

-0.7

705.4

1982

0.8

80.4

5.2

0.3

119.4

6.1

2.2

5.1

2.4

157.9

133.9

10.7

443.1

150.9

3.9

37.2

0

-10

706.2

1983

0.7

76.6

4.9

0.3

98.5

5.4

1.7

5.2

2.5

160.4

146.6

9.3

434.8

126.4

4

39.4

0

9.5

691.4

1984

1.5

83.5

6.2

0.3

119.7

5.7

1.3

5

2.7

162.1

157.7

10.5

471.2

155

3.9

36.4

0

-31.3

720.2

1985

21.3

80.6

13.9

0.4

120.5

6.1

4

4.6

2.5

162.8

132.3

10

457.2

135.1

2.8

36

0.1

-2.6

730.4

1986

21.2

81.3

14.1

0.4

130.6

7.1

3.2

4.1

2.5

167.4

140.1

6.4

475.8

197.5

3.9

31.1

1.5

-66.9

745.3

1987

21.4

94.7

14.2

0.3

137.7

10.1

3.3

5.7

2.8

170.3

119.1

6.4

470

214.5

3.6

27.1

2

-63.8

769.4

1988

23.1

90.9

12.3

0.2

149

12.2

4.1

5.5

2.7

172.5

137.4

6.4

502.4

235.9

3.4

30.6

2.3

-87.5

801.1

1989

23.8

102

11.9

0.2

161.1

12.7

3.8

5.8

2.7

169.5

139.3

6.3

513.4

207

4.6

30.7

0.8

-65.2

817.1

1990

38.5

109

10.5

0.5

135.5

13.3

1.8

5.8

2.8

163.6

104.1

7.1

444.9

209.3

6

28.3

0.2

-64.8

771.3

1991

38.6

116

13.1

0.1

129.8

12.7

2.1

5.4

2.5

167.4

91.3

8.2

432.8

128.4

4.5

29.9

1.9

17.7

769.5

1992

39.2

126

11.1

0.1

146

13

1.4

6.8

2.6

171.2

68.3

8.5

429.1

175.6

4.4

34.1

3.2

-8.6

803.2

1993

37.3

126

10.5

0.2

134.7

13.1

1.6

6.1

2.6

173.9

55.5

8.6

406.6

229

4.2

34.2

3.7

-45

796

1994

38.6

134

11.1

0.1

128.4

13.9

1.5

5.4

2.7

170.9

47.6

8.8

390.3

210.7

5

35.2

4.2

-22.4

796

1995

40.8

145

12.7

0.2

124.2

14.1

1.4

5.1

2.7

159.5

42.8

8.4

371.1

197

3.6

43.2

4.5

-26.3

778.9

1996

41.1

139

10.4

0.2

129.1

15.4

1.3

5.5

2.6

170.4

65.4

21.8

422.1

65.4

6.5

48.3

4.7

101.4

828.6

1997

45

149

8.1

0.1

129.2

13.4

1.6

6.3

2.8

171.7

92.3

23.8

449.2

-1.3

4.5

43.7

6

126.9

822.6

1998

32.6

135

3.7

0.3

115.8

12.5

2

8.1

2.9

175.1

94.2

23.9

438.5

34

4.6

42.8

5

113.1

805.5

1999

15.2

156

4.4

0.2

130.5

13.9

2

6.1

2.9

189.1

90.7

23.9

463.7

132.5

4.3

43.4

5.5

32

852.5

2000

36.2

164

4.5

0.2

137.3

14.7

2.9

7.7

2.9

182

74.4

23.5

450.1

170.7

5.3

43.4

5.6

-20.4

854.6

2001

40

149

4.7

0.4

144.6

13.4

2.6

8.8

2.6

184.6

56.8

20.3

438.7

161.2

2.9

38.7

1.7

20.5

853.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                     Grades 9-10

Curriculum-Embedded Performance Task

Strand II: Chemical Structures and Properties

 

 

 

Synthetic Polymers

 

 

Laboratory Investigation

Teacher Materials

 

 

 


Synthetic Polymers

 

Teacher Materials

 

This curriculum-embedded science performance task is related to the content standard and expected performances for high school, as described in the Core Science Curriculum Framework under Scientific Inquiry, Literacy and Numeracy, Strand II – Chemical Structures and Properties.

 

Targeted Content Standard

9.6 - Chemical technologies present both risks and benefits to the health and well-being of humans, plants and animals.

Targeted Scientific Inquiry, Literacy and Numeracy Standards

D INQ. 1  Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigation.

D INQ. 3  Formulate a testable hypothesis and demonstrate logical connections between the scientific concepts guiding the hypothesis and the design of the experiment.

D INQ. 4  Design and conduct appropriate types of scientific investigations to answer                 different questions.

D INQ. 5  Identify independent and dependent variables, including those that are kept constant and those used as controls.

D INQ. 6  Use appropriate tools and techniques to make observations and gather data.

D INQ. 7  Assess the reliability of the data that was generated in the investigation.

D INQ. 9  Articulate conclusions and explanations based on research data, and assess results based on the design of an investigation.

 

Learning Objective:

 

Students will investigate a synthetic polymer (polyethylene) and how the polymer can be processed to produce products with different characteristics.

 

Listed below are the suggested materials for the laboratory exercise. You may use additional materials if they are available.

 

Materials:

plastic dry cleaning bags                        sandpaper (coarse and fine)

markers                                                      ruler

clear kitchen wrap                                  empty coffee cans

plastic sandwich bags                             rubber bands                                

ball bearings (different masses)              ring stands or clamps           

scissors                                                            safety goggles

 

 

Considerations:

 

Students will need some background information on the structure of polyethylene and the terminology used to describe the different arrangements of the polymer, for example low density polyethylene (LDPE) versus high density polyethylene (HDPE).  The differences in the stress-strain behaviors of polyethylene in the products the students are investigating are due in large part to how the materials are processed. Background information on the processing of plastics and specific information about polyethylene may be found at these and many other sites:

 

http://www.teachingplastics.org

http://americanplasticscouncil.org/s_apc/index.asp

 

 

Teams of two students are ideal for laboratory work, but circumstances may necessitate teams of three students.  Students will need a minimum of 90 minutes to complete this laboratory exercise if you expect their lab reports to be written during class time.  You should allow at least 60 minutes of instructional time for the students to design and conduct their experiment and a minimum of 30 minutes for the students to write about their results.  As an alternative, students can write the lab report for homework.  These time frames are merely suggestions.  Additional time is appropriate if the circumstances and the schedule at your school call for it.  A sample scoring rubric is provided for your convenience or you can design one of your own.

 

This curriculum-embedded task can be integrated into a unit on polymer chemistry in any high school physical or Earth science course.  The curriculum-embedded task is intended to be used as a formative assessment during the appropriate instructional unit.  The Connecticut Academic Performance Test – Generation III will include some open-ended items that will assess scientific inquiry and communication skills in the same context as this task.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

         Curriculum-Embedded Laboratory Investigation Scoring Rubric

 

Statement of Problem and Hypothesis

3       The problem and hypothesis are stated clearly and completely.  Clear identification of independent and dependent variables.

2       The problem and hypothesis are stated adequately.  Adequate identification of independent and dependent variables.

1       The problem and/or hypothesis are poorly stated.  Poor identification of independent and dependent variable.

0       The statement of the problem and/or hypothesis is very limited or missing altogether.  No identification of independent and dependent variables.

 

Experimental Design

3       The experimental design matches the stated problem.  Variables are held constant.  The procedures are clear, complete and replicable.  A control is included when appropriate.

2       The experimental design generally matches the stated problem.  Attempt at holding variables constant is made.  Procedures are generally complete.  Minor modifications or clarifications may be needed.

1       The experimental design matches the stated problem to some extent.  Little attempt to hold variables constant.  Procedures are incomplete.  Major modifications or clarifications may be needed.

0       The experimental design does not match the stated problem, is very incomplete or missing.  There is no attempt to hold variables constant.

 

Data Presentation

3       Data are well organized and presented in an appropriate manner.

2       Data are organized and presented in an appropriate manner.  Minor errors or omissions may be present.

1       Data are poorly organized or presented in an inappropriate manner.  Major omissions or errors may be present.

0       Data are very poorly organized or presented in an inappropriate manner or missing altogether.

 

Conclusions

3       Conclusions are fully supported by data and address the hypothesis.  Reliability of data and validity of conclusions are thoroughly discussed.

2       Conclusions are generally supported by data and address the hypothesis.  Minor errors in interpretation of results may be present. Discussion of reliability of data and validity of conclusions is limited.

1       Conclusions are supported by data and address the hypothesis to a limited extent.  Major errors in interpretation of results may be present. There is little discussion of the reliability of the data or validity of conclusions.

0       Conclusions are not supported by data, do not address the hypothesis or are missing.  There is no discussion of the reliability of data or validity of conclusions.

 

Excellent performance                   10-12 points

Proficient performance                  7-9 points

Marginal performance          4-6 points

Unsatisfactory performance 0-3 points

 

          Student Name:_____________      Class:_____

 

 

 

 

Synthetic Polymers

 

Laboratory Investigation

Student Materials

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                     

   Synthetic Polymers

 

                                    Student Materials

 

Polymers are large molecules consisting of chains of small molecules called monomers joined together in a repeating pattern.  In the early 1900s, scientists began to understand the chemical makeup of natural polymers and how to make synthetic polymers with properties that complement those of natural materials.  One simple synthetic polymer chemists developed is polyethylene.  They developed it by repeating units of the monomer ethylene (H2C=CH2).  Polyethylene is a very large, zigzag-shaped molecule. One small part of a polyethylene chain is shown below. 

 

                                                                -(CH2- CH2)-n  

                               

  

                   H             H            H             H            H

                    |      H      |      H     |      H      |      H     |       H

                ---C     |       C     |      C     |       C     |      C      |

                    |  C   |  C  |  C   |  C  |  C---

                  H      |      H      |     H      |      H      |     H      |

                           H             H            H             H             H

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Chemists and engineers have learned to process and modify molecules of polyethylene in different ways to manufacture common household products with a variety of characteristics.  Polyethylene is used to make plastic trash bags, dry cleaning bags, milk jugs and soda bottles.  In industry, materials made from polyethylene are tested for what are called “stress-strain behaviors.”  Stress-strain behaviors include:

 

   tensile strength - the amount of pulling force placed upon a material before it breaks

   abrasion resistance - toughness of material against scraping, scuffing or scarring

   puncture resistance - ability of a material to keep moving objects from perforating the      

   surface

 

Your Task

 

You and your lab partner will design an experiment that investigates a stress-strain behavior among various plastic products made of the synthetic polymer polyethylene. 

 

You have been provided with the following materials and equipment.  It may not be necessary to use all of the equipment that has been provided. 

 

 

 

 

 

Suggested materials:

 

plastic dry cleaning bag                                    coffee can

plastic kitchen wrap                                                rubber bands

plastic sandwich bag                                           ring stands/ or clamps

plastic grocery bag                                          ruler                                    

ball bearings (different masses)                       safety goggles

scissors

markers

sandpaper (coarse and fine)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Designing and Conducting Your Experiment

 

 

1. In your words, state the problem you are going to investigate.  Write a hypothesis using an “If … then … because …” statement that describes what you expect to find and why.  Include a clear identification of the independent and dependent variables that will be studied.

 

2. Design an experiment to solve the problem.  Your experimental design should match the statement of the problem and should be clearly described so that someone else could easily replicate your experiment.  Include a control if appropriate and state which variables need to be held constant.

 

3. Review your design with your teacher before you begin your experiment. 

 

4. Conduct your experiment.  While conducting your experiment, take notes and organize your data into tables.

    

Safety note: Students must wear approved safety goggles and follow all safety instructions.

 

When you have finished, your teacher will give you instructions for cleanup procedures, including proper disposal of all materials.

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                            


Communicating Your Findings

 

 

Working on your own, summarize your investigation in a laboratory report that includes the following:

 

·      A statement of the problem you investigated.  A hypothesis (“If ... then … because …” statement) that described what you expected to find and why.  Include a clear identification of the independent and dependent variables.

 

·      A description of the experiment you carried out.  Your description should be clear and complete enough so that someone could easily replicate your experiment.

 

·      Data from your experiment. Your data should be organized into tables, charts and/or graphs as appropriate. 

 

·      Your conclusions from the experiment.  Your conclusions should be fully supported by your data and address your hypothesis.

 

·      Discuss the reliability of your data and any factors that contribute to a lack of validity of your conclusions.  Also, include ways that your experiment could be improved if you were to do it again.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                           

 

 

Grades 9-10

Curriculum-Embedded Performance Task

Strand II: Chemical Structures & Properties

 

 

 

Synthetic Polymers

 

 

Science, Technology & Society

Teacher Materials

 

 

 


  Synthetic Polymers

 

Teacher Materials

 

This curriculum-embedded science performance task is related to the content standards and expected performances for Grades 9-10, as described in the Core Science Curriculum Framework, under Scientific Inquiry, Literacy and Numeracy, Strand II – Chemical Structures and Properties.

Targeted Content Standard

9.6 – Chemical technologies present both risks and benefits to the health and well-being of humans, plants and animals.

Targeted Scientific Inquiry, Literacy and Numeracy Standards

D INQ. 2  Read, interpret and examine the credibility and validity of scientific claims in different sources of information.

D INQ. 9  Articulate conclusions and explanations based on research data, and assess results based on the design of an investigation.

D INQ. 10 Communicate about science in different formats, using relevant science vocabulary, supporting evidence and clear logic.

 

 

Learning objective:

 

Students will evaluate the credibility of information provided by different websites as it relates to the risks versus benefits of using plastic products.

 

Materials:

 

Access to computers/Internet

 

Considerations:

 

Students will need background information on the strategies used to evaluate the credibility of online resources.  The media specialist at your school may provide instruction on this topic or you may want to collaborate with the media specialist on a lesson for your classes centered on this inquiry standard.  A template for the student activity is provided for your convenience or you may create your own.

 

You will find several strategies for tips on how to evaluate the trustworthiness of online sites at these and other websites:

 

http://mason.gmu.edu/~montecin/web-eval-sites.htm

http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Internet/Evaluate.html

 

        Student Name:___________       Class:______

 

 

 

 

Synthetic Polymers

 

 

Science, Technology & Society

Student Materials

Grades 9-10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Synthetic Polymers

 

       Student Materials

 

 

One of the most important factors in researching an issue online is evaluating the credibility of the source of information.  Anyone may publish their work online but not everyone who publishes information is interested in providing data-driven, unbiased and balanced information to the reader.  Some sources online are interested in promoting a product or an industry.  Other sources try to sway opinions without any credible facts to backup their views. 

 

You are trying to evaluate the risks versus benefits of using plastic products.   During your research you find the sites and articles listed below.  Your task is to evaluate the credibility of the sources of information by filling out the template on the following page.  Use the background information and skills provided to you by your teacher to evaluate the sources.   Remember to document your evidence as to the kind of site, authority of the author, the point of view of the author/site, date of publication and any other information that is important in the evaluation of the reliability of the site.

 

 

http://www.packagingtoday.com

http://muextension.missouri.edu/explore/wasteman/wm0002.htm

http://www.americanplasticscouncil.org/s_apc/sec.asp?CID=298&DID=897

http://www.whoi.edu/science/B/people/kamaral/plasticsarticle.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Name of Website

 

Kind of site

(.edu,.org, .com)

 

Author/Source

 

Date of

Publication

 

Point of view of author/site

 

Reliability of the information provided

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                   Assessing the Credibility of Information

 

 

 

 

Write a brief assessment about the credibility of the sources you investigated:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grades 9-10

            Curriculum-Embedded Performance Task

                  Strand III: Global Interdependence

 

 

 

 

                     Acid Rain

 

Laboratory Investigation

Teacher Materials

 


Acid Rain

 

Teacher Materials

 

This curriculum-embedded science performance task is related to the content standards and expected performances for high school, as described in the Core Science Curriculum Framework, under Scientific Inquiry, Literacy and Numeracy, Strand III – Global Interdependence. 

 

Targeted Content Standard

9.8 - The use of resources by human populations may affect the quality of the environment.

Targeted Scientific Inquiry, Literacy and Numeracy Standards

D INQ. 1  Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigation.

D INQ. 3  Formulate a testable hypothesis and demonstrate logical connections between the scientific concepts guiding the hypothesis and the design of the experiment.

D INQ. 4  Design and conduct appropriate types of scientific investigations to answer                 different questions.

D INQ. 5  Identify independent and dependent variables, including those that are kept constant and those used as controls.

D INQ. 6  Use appropriate tools and techniques to make observations and gather data.

D INQ. 7  Assess the reliability of the data that was generated in the investigation.

D INQ. 9  Articulate conclusions and explanations based on research data, and assess results based on the design of an investigation.

            

Learning objective:

 

Students will be able to identify building materials that are resistant to the effects of acid rain based on their data.

 

Listed below are the suggested materials for the laboratory exercise. You may use additional materials if they are available.

 

Materials:

 

containers with lids                                 limestone chips

graduated cylinder                                  marble chips

vinegar                                                   red sandstone chips

pH paper/meter                              pea stone

safety goggles                                         access to a balance

 

 

Considerations:

 

Teams of two students are ideal for laboratory work, but circumstances may necessitate teams of three students.  Students will need a minimum of 90 minutes to complete this laboratory exercise if you expect their lab reports to be written during class time.  You should allow about 60 minutes of instructional time for students to design and set up their experiments. Additional instructional time will be necessary for students to collect data for this activity as the change in the condition of the building materials will take several hours. If your schedule is such that class does not meet every day, then further adjustments for the activity will be necessary.   Allow a minimum of 30 minutes for students to write about their results. As an alternative students can complete the lab report for homework.  A sample scoring rubric is provided for your convenience or you may design your own.

 

Suggested materials for students to test have been listed in the laboratory activity.  You can change these materials based on the supplies available to you or ask the students to bring in other building materials to test. 

 

Any small container with a cover will work for this activity, including small jars or petri dishes.  Vinegar with an approximate pH of 3 has been suggested as a substance to simulate acid rain.  If the odor is too intense another weak acid may be substituted at the discretion of the teacher.  Keep in mind safety considerations and the fact that average acid rain has a pH between 4.0 and 5.5.

 

The quantity of vinegar that is introduced to the building material is not specified in the student instructions.  You can control the maximum amount of vinegar available to a team of students (20 ml per material tested) to conserve supplies or direct all students to use the same quantity of vinegar and building materials to pool data and compare results.

 

Some relevant information on acid rain is available at these and many other sites:

http://www.epa.gov/highschool/air.htm

http://www.geocities.com/narilily/buildings.html

http://www.ec.gc.ca/acidrain/

 

The task can be integrated into a unit on environmental science in any high-school physical or Earth science course.  The curriculum-embedded task is intended to be used as a formative assessment during the appropriate instructional unit. The Connecticut Academic Performance Test – Generation III will include some open-ended items that will assess scientific inquiry and communication skills in the same context as this task.

 

 

 

 


       Curriculum-Embedded Laboratory Investigation Scoring Rubric

 

Statement of Problem and Hypothesis

3       The problem and hypothesis are stated clearly and completely.  Clear identification of independent and dependent variables.

2       The problem and hypothesis are stated adequately.  Adequate identification of independent and dependent variables.

1       The problem and/or hypothesis are poorly stated.  Poor identification of independent and dependent variable.

0       The statement of the problem and/or hypothesis is very limited or missing altogether.  No identification of independent and dependent variables.

 

 Experimental Design

3       The experimental design matches the stated problem.  Variables are held constant.  The procedures are clear, complete and replicable.  A control is included when appropriate.

2       The experimental design generally matches the stated problem.  Attempt at holding variables constant is made.  Procedures are generally complete.  Minor modifications or clarifications may be needed.

1       The experimental design matches the stated problem to some extent.  Little attempt to hold variables constant.  Procedures are incomplete.  Major modifications or clarifications may be needed.

0       The experimental design does not match the stated problem, is very incomplete or missing.  There is no attempt to hold variables constant.

 

Data Presentation

3       Data are well organized and presented in an appropriate manner.

2       Data are organized and presented in an appropriate manner.  Minor errors or omissions may be present.

1       Data are poorly organized or presented in an inappropriate manner.  Major omissions or errors may be present.

0       Data are very poorly organized or presented in an inappropriate manner or missing altogether.

 

Conclusions

3       Conclusions are fully supported by data and address the hypothesis.  Reliability of data and validity of conclusions are thoroughly discussed.

2       Conclusions are generally supported by data and address the hypothesis.  Minor errors in interpretation of results may be present. Discussion of reliability of data and validity of conclusions is limited.

1       Conclusions are supported by data and address the hypothesis to a limited extent.  Major errors in interpretation of results may be present. There is little discussion of the reliability of the data or validity of conclusions.

0       Conclusions are not supported by data, do not address the hypothesis or are missing.  There is no discussion of the reliability of data or validity of conclusions.

 

Excellent performance                   10-12 points

Proficient performance                  7-9 points

Marginal performance          4-6 points

Unsatisfactory performance 0-3 points

 

 

 

 

       Student Name:_____________         Class:_____

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acid Rain

 

Laboratory Investigation

Student Materials


 

 

Acid Rain

 

Student Materials

 

Acid rain is a major environmental issue throughout Connecticut and much of the United States.  Acid rain occurs when pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide from coal burning power plants and nitrogen oxides from car exhaust, combine with the moisture in the atmosphere to create sulfuric and nitric acids.  Precipitation with a pH of 5.5 or lower is considered acid rain.

 

Acid rain not only affects wildlife in rivers and lakes but also does tremendous damage to buildings and monuments made of stone.  Millions of dollars are spent annually on cleaning and renovating these structures because of acid rain.

 

Your Task

 

Your town council is commissioning a new statue to be displayed downtown.  You and your lab partner will conduct an experiment to investigate the effect of acid rain on various building materials in order to make a recommendation to the town council as to the best material to use for the statue. In your experiment, vinegar will simulate acid rain.

 

You have been provided with the following materials and equipment.  It may not be necessary to use all of the equipment that has been provided. 

 

 

 

Suggested materials:

                                                                                       Proposed building materials:

                                   

containers with lids                                          limestone chips

graduated cylinder                                              marble chips

vinegar (simulates acid rain)                               red sandstone chips

pH paper/meter                                             pea stone

safety goggles                                                 access to a balance              

                          

 

 

 

                 

 

              

 

 

Designing and Conducting Your Experiment

 

 

1. In  your words, state the problem you are going to investigate.  Write a hypothesis using an “If …  then … because …” statement that describes what you expect to find and why.  Include a clear identification of the independent and dependent variables that will be studied.

 

2. Design an experiment to solve the problem.  Your experimental design should match the statement of the problem and should be clearly described so that someone else could easily replicate your experiment.  Include a control if appropriate and state which variables need to be held constant.

 

3. Review your design with your teacher before you begin your experiment. 

 

4. Conduct your experiment.  While conducting your experiment, take notes and organize your data into tables.

 

Safety note: Students must wear approved safety goggles and follow all safety instructions.

 

 

When you have finished, your teacher will give you instructions for cleanup procedures, including proper disposal of all materials.

 

                 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Communicating Your Findings

 

Working on your own, summarize your investigation in a laboratory report that includes the following:

 

·      A statement of the problem you investigated.  A hypothesis (“If ... then … because …” statement) that described what you expected to find and why.  Include a clear identification of the independent and dependent variables.

 

·      A description of the experiment you carried out.  Your description should be clear and complete enough so that someone could easily replicate your experiment.

 

·      Data from your experiment. Your data should be organized into tables, charts and/or graphs as appropriate. 

 

·      Your conclusions from the experiment.  Your conclusions should be fully supported by your data and address your hypothesis.

 

·      Discuss the reliability of your data and any factors that contribute to a lack of validity of your conclusions.  Also, include ways that your experiment could be improved if you were to do it again.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grades 9-10

          Curriculum Embedded Performance Task

                 Strand III: Global Interdependence

 

 

 

 

 

 

Connecticut Brownfield Sites

 

Science, Technology & Society

Teacher Materials


 

                         Connecticut Brownfield Sites

 

Teacher Materials

 

This curriculum-embedded science performance task is related to the content standards and expected performances for Grades 9-10, as described in the Core Science Curriculum Framework, under Scientific Inquiry, Literacy and Numeracy, Strand III – Global Interdependence.

 

Targeted Content Standard

9.9 - Some materials can be recycled, but others accumulate in the environment and may affect the balance of the Earth systems.

Targeted Scientific Inquiry, Literacy and Numeracy Standards

D INQ. 1 Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigation.

D INQ. 2  Read, interpret and examine the credibility and validity of scientific claims in different sources of information.

D INQ. 4  Design and conduct appropriate types of scientific investigations to answer different questions.

D INQ. 5  Identify independent and dependent variables, including those that are kept constant and those used as controls.

D INQ. 9  Articulate conclusions and explanations based on research data, and assess results based on the design of an investigation.

D INQ. 10 Communicate about science in different formats, using relevant science vocabulary, supporting evidence and clear logic.

 

 

 

Learning objective: 

 

Students will formulate a question about a Brownfield site that may be answered through scientific investigation and then design the investigation.

 

Materials:

Access to computers/Internet

 

 

 

 

 

 

Considerations:

 

More than 290 sites in Connecticut have been identified as “Brownfield Sites.”  These are parcels of property once used for industrial, commercial or manufacturing purposes and now typically are abandoned due to suspected contamination.  Often these unused parcels adversely affect the quality of living in the area and may pose potential health risks to local citizens.  Financial assistance is available from the state and federal governments to assess and remediate these sites.     

        

The Connecticut Brownfield Inventory is updated on a regular basis and may be accessed at the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection’s website: http://dep.state.ct.us/wst/remediation/brownfields/brownfields.htm.

 

The objective of this exercise is to allow students to explore environmental issues that are close to home.  The students are not expected to create a protocol for retrieving a specific chemical such as toluene from a site.   Instead the task is to formulate a general procedure for exploring the effect the contamination may have on the site or nearby property.  Students may design an investigation that focuses on one specific chemical and its contamination plume at the site.  They may consider where the sampling will occur (water, soil, air) and other parameters of the investigation such as the number of test sites, distances from the source, etc. Other students may design an investigation with a focus on one contaminant and its influence on a particular species of plant or animal in the area.   If students are not able to identify the suspected contaminants at the site based on the general information on the inventory, the list below can be used for direction. 

 

 

Contaminant

 

 

Possible source of contamination

 

Heavy metals:

arsenic, cadmium chromium, lead,

mercury

 

metal finishing/plating shops, manufacturing and foundries, coal burning power plants

 

Gasoline/constituents of gasoline:

gasoline, benzene,

ethylbenzene, toluene,

xylene

 

 

gasoline stations, tank farms, pipelines

 

Solvents:

tetrachloroethlyene,

trichloroethylene,

III-trichloroethane

 

dry cleaners, machine shops,

metal finishing/plating shops

 

This is an opportunity to invite an environmental engineer to the classroom to discuss the assessment and remediation processes at Brownfield sites.  The time frame of assessment, follow-up remediation and cost may surprise students. 

 

A professional in environmental engineering or environmental science may give students feedback on the feasibility of their proposed scientific investigations.   Local community members may speak to the prior use of the property or to the process by which the site was identified as a Brownfield site.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

             Student Name:_________       Class:_____

 

 

 

 

 

 

Connecticut Brownfield Sites

 

Science, Technology & Society

Student Materials

 

Grades 9-10
Connecticut Brownfield Sites

                    

                                          Student Materials

 

More than 290 sites in Connecticut have been identified as “Brownfield Sites.”  These are parcels of property once used for industrial, commercial or manufacturing and are now typically abandoned due to suspected contamination.  Often these unused parcels adversely affect the quality of living in the area and may pose potential health risks to local citizens.  Financial assistance is available from the state and federal governments to assess and remediate these sites.

        

Find a Connecticut Brownfield site near your hometown by clicking on the Brownfield Inventory link found at the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection’s website: http://dep.state.ct.us/wst/remediation/brownfields/brownfields.htm.  What has the property been used for that led it to being identified as a Brownfield site?  Use a search engine such as Google or DogPile to research one of the potential contaminants at the site.  If you have trouble identifying a specific contaminant from the nearby Brownfield site, ask your teacher for clarification from the master list he or she has been given.

 

Your task is to formulate a question about the site that may be answered through scientific investigation and to design the investigation.   Do not worry about the specific steps needed to isolate the contaminant or specific techniques used to measure the contaminant’s effect on the environment.  Focus on writing a general plan for your investigation including the independent and dependent variables to be studied, general procedures you will follow and the data you will collect.  Include a control group if appropriate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                        

      Grades 9-10

                 Curriculum-Embedded Performance Task

                       Strand IV: Cell Chemistry and        

                                          Biotechnology

 

          File written by Adobe Photoshop® 5.2

 

Enzymes

 

 Laboratory Investigation

Teacher Materials

 

 

 

 

Enzymes

 

Teacher Materials

 

This curriculum-embedded science performance task is related to the content standards and expected performances for high school, as described in the Core Science Curriculum Framework, under Scientific Inquiry, Literacy and Numeracy, Strand IV – Cell Chemistry and Biotechnology.

 

Targeted Content Standard

10.1   The fundamental life processes depend on the physical structure and the chemical activities of the cell.

Targeted Scientific Inquiry, Literacy and Numeracy Standards

D INQ. 1  Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigation.

D INQ. 3  Formulate a testable hypothesis and demonstrate logical connections between the scientific concepts guiding the hypothesis and the design of the experiment.

D INQ. 4  Design and conduct appropriate types of scientific investigations to answer                 different questions.

D INQ. 5  Identify independent and dependent variables, including those that are kept constant  and those used as controls.

D INQ. 6  Use appropriate tools and techniques to make observations and gather data.

D INQ. 7  Assess the reliability of the data that was generated in the investigation.

D INQ. 9  Articulate conclusions and explanations based on research data, and assess results  based on the design of an investigation.

          

Learning objective:

 

Students will be able to identify the best enzyme for juice production and variables that affect the ability of an enzyme to function.

 

Listed below are the suggested materials for the laboratory exercise. You may use additional materials if they are available.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Materials:

 

apple sauce                           droppers                               splash-proof safety goggles

pectinase enzyme                 stirring rods                                   access to a balance

cellulase enzyme                  graduated cylinder                         paper towels for cleanup

funnels                                  access to tap water

filter paper                   paper cups

lab aprons                    access to a stopwatch, watch or clock

 

Considerations:

 

Teams of two students are ideal for laboratory work, but circumstances may necessitate teams of three students.  Students will need a minimum of 90 minutes to complete this laboratory exercise if you expect their lab reports to be written during class time.  You should allow at least 60 minutes of instructional time for the students to design and conduct their experiment and a minimum of 30 minutes for the students to write about their results. As an alternative the students can complete the lab report for homework.  A sample scoring rubric is provided for your convenience or you may design one of your own.

 

A guideline for the quantity of enzyme to be used is provided due to the concern about conserving costly supplies.  Once students identify which enzyme or combination produces the greatest quantity of juice, you can encourage them to explore another variable effect on juice production such as change in temperature or pH.  This extension relies on the availability of enzyme supply and instructional time. Check with the science supply house of your choice for the availability and cost of the enzymes.  Remember the shelf life of the enzymes is six months when refrigerated.

 

The task can be integrated into a unit on cell chemistry in any high school biology course. The curriculum-embedded task is intended to be used in the course of normal instruction as a formative assessment.  The Connecticut Academic Performance Test-Generation III will include some open-ended items that will assess scientific inquiry and communication skills in the same context as this task.

 

 


          Background Information on the Enzymes Used in This Activity

 

 

Cellulase

 

The enzyme cellulase breaks down cellulose.  Cellulose is a polymer made out of long branching chains of glucose and it is one of the main components of plant cell walls.  Cellulose accounts for about 50 percent of all the organic materials on Earth.  Unfortunately, humans, like all other mammals, do not contain the enzyme cellulase and therefore can’t digest cellulose. 

 

Scientists purified the enzyme cellulase and currently it is used in the food industry for the production of wine and juices.  The enzyme is also used in the production of plant-based materials such as paper, light basswood, rayon fibers and photographic films.

 

 

 

Pectinase

 

The enzyme pectinase breaks down pectin.  Pectin is a complex carbohydrate that is part of the plant cell wall.  Pectin acts like “glue,” holding plant cell walls together.  Pectin is soluble in water, and in a mild acidic environment it becomes sticky.  These properties make pectin very useful in the production of jams and jellies.  When the enzyme pectinase is added to mashed fruits it breaks down the pectin in the fruit cell walls, thus facilitating the industrial production of fruit juices.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

              

         Curriculum-Embedded Laboratory Investigation Scoring Rubric

 

Statement of Problem and Hypothesis

3       The problem and hypothesis are stated clearly and completely.  Clear identification of independent and dependent variables.

2       The problem and hypothesis are stated adequately.  Adequate identification of independent and dependent variables.

1       The problem and/or hypothesis are poorly stated.  Poor identification of independent and dependent variable.

0       The statement of the problem and/or hypothesis is very limited or missing altogether.  No identification of independent and dependent variables.

 

Experimental Design

3       The experimental design matches the stated problem.  Variables are held constant.  The procedures are clear, complete and replicable.  A control is included when appropriate.

2       The experimental design generally matches the stated problem.  Attempt at holding variables constant is made.  Procedures are generally complete.  Minor modifications or clarifications may be needed.

1       The experimental design matches the stated problem to some extent.  Little attempt to hold variables constant.  Procedures are incomplete.  Major modifications or clarifications may be needed.

0       The experimental design does not match the stated problem, is very incomplete or missing.  There is no attempt to hold variables constant.

 

Data Presentation

3       Data are well organized and presented in an appropriate manner.

2       Data are organized and presented in an appropriate manner.  Minor errors or omissions may be present.

1       Data are poorly organized or presented in an inappropriate manner.  Major omissions or errors may be present.

0       Data are very poorly organized or presented in an inappropriate manner or missing altogether.

 

Conclusions

3       Conclusions are fully supported by data and address the hypothesis.  Reliability of data and validity of conclusions are thoroughly discussed.

2       Conclusions are generally supported by data and address the hypothesis.  Minor errors in interpretation of results may be present. Discussion of reliability of data and validity of conclusions is limited.

1       Conclusions are supported by data and address the hypothesis to a limited extent.  Major errors in interpretation of results may be present. There is little discussion of the reliability of the data or validity of conclusions.

0       Conclusions are not supported by data, do not address the hypothesis or are missing.  There is no discussion of the reliability of data or validity of conclusions.

 

Excellent performance                   10-12 points

Proficient performance                  7-9 points

Marginal performance          4-6 points

Unsatisfactory performance 0-3 points

 

 

       Student Name:_____________         Class:_____

 

 

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Enzymes

 

Laboratory Investigation

Student Materials


Enzymes

 

Student Materials

 

Introduction: Apple Juice

 

A Connecticut company is in the business of making and selling apple juice.  To make apple juice, apple sauce is strained through filters to remove the juice.  The company would like your help in testing the impact of different enzymes on the production of the apple juice. You will investigate the ability of these enzymes to remove more juice during this process and decide the most cost effective plan to increase juice production. The following is a list of the enzymes along with their prices:

 

                           Pectinase:  $  50 per liter

                           Cellulase:        $100 per liter

 

Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the cells of all living organisms.  Enzymes control many vital functions in the cell, including the release of energy during the breakdown of nutrients into smaller molecules and the synthesis of complex cell materials from the small molecules.  In this lab you will work with two plant enzymes – cellulase and pectinase.