II. UNIT 4: Landforms and Constructive and Destructive Forces
a. Unit Introduction:
CT State Grade Level Expectations (Draft)
GRADE-LEVEL CONCEPT 1: u Glaciation, weathering, and erosion change the Earth’s surface by moving earth materials from place to place.
8. Weathering and erosion work together as destructive natural forces. Both are forces that break down rock into small particles called sediments.
9. Weathering is the breakdown of rocks into small particles (sediment) due to physical, chemical, or biological interactions. Physical weathering can result from the repeated freezing and thawing of water entering small cracks or pores in rocks, or from temperature fluctuations causing expansion and contraction. Chemical weathering can occur when water dissolves minerals in certain rock types. Biological weathering can be caused by plant roots or lichens. Rock properties, such as hardness, porosity or mineral content, influence its susceptibility to weathering.
10. Erosion loosens and transports sediment formed by weathering. Moving water can carry away tiny sediments or entire hillsides, riverbanks, beaches, or roadbeds. Rivers, waves or waterfalls can carve landforms such as valleys, canyons, caverns or floodplains. Wind can erode some rock types, carving distinctive formations or creating sand dunes.
GRADE-LEVEL CONCEPT 2: u Volcanic activity and the folding and faulting of rock layers during the shifting of Earth’s crust affect the formation of mountains, ridges, and valleys.
5. At the locations where two tectonic plates interact, a boundary exists. There are divergent boundaries (where plates move apart causing trenches and new crust to form), convergent boundaries (where plates push together causing folding, faulting and uplift), and transform boundaries (where plates slide past each other causing a build-up of resistance that can result in earthquakes). Connecticut has a great deal of fault rock evidence of crustal separation.
SCIENTIFIC LITERACY TERMINOLOGY: Erosion, weathering, glacier, valley, floodplain, core, mantle, folds, fault/fault line, continent, tectonic plate, plate boundary, convection, mountains, volcano, earthquake.
c. Essential Questions:
d. Essential Concept
e. Essential Skills