I.              Grade/Course Title: 7th Grade Science

 

 

 Quarter: 3

 

II. Unit #5: LIFE SYSTEMS: MUSCULO-SKELETAL Unit Length: 10 weeks

                                                            

      a. Unit Introduction: The human body is a complex organism that is made up of a number of different body systems. Each system carries out a specific life process contributing to the body as a whole. The muscular and skeletal systems work with one another to support and move the body. The skeletal system consists of bones, cartilage, and connective tissue and supports the body and protects internal organs. The muscular system consists of muscles that help the body move and aids in circulation, digestion, and respiration.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

      b. Standards for Unit #5

      C17. Explain how the human muscular-skeletal system supports the body and allows movement.

      CINQ2 Read, interpret and examine the credibility of scientific claims in different sources of information.

      CINQ10 Communicate about science in different formats, using relevant science vocabulary, supporting evidence and clear logic.

         CT State Grade Level Expectations (Draft)

GRADE-LEVEL CONCEPT 2:  u  Multicellular organisms need specialized structures and systems to perform basic life functions.

GRADE-LEVEL EXPECTATIONS:

1.       Systems consist of parts that interact with and influence each other.  Parts of a system work together to make the whole entity work.  Similarly, each part of an animal body has a specific job to do, and all the different parts work together to support life. 

2.       Although all cells have similar basic structures, in multicellular organisms cells have specialized shapes that enable them to perform specific roles (for example, muscle, nerve, and skin cells can be identified by their distinct shapes).

3.       Groups of similar cells are organized in tissues that have specific functions (for example, providing support, connecting parts, carrying messages, protecting internal and external surfaces).

4.       Different tissues work together to form an organ, and organs work together as organ systems to perform essential life functions.

5.       The human skeletal system includes bones joined together by ligaments.  The skeletal system functions to shape and support the body, protect internal organs, enable movement, form blood cells, and store minerals such as calcium and phosphorous.

6.       Joints are places where two bones come together and body movement can occur. The structure of a joint (for example, ball and socket, hinge or pivot) determines the kind of movement possible at that point.

7.       The human muscular system includes skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles. The skeletal muscles are attached to bones by tendons and they are responsible for the movement of the body.  The cardiac muscle is responsible for the pumping action of the heart and the smooth muscles are related to the movement of the internal organs.

8.       The muscular and skeletal systems interact to support the body and allow movement.

 

      c. Essential Questions:

      1. How does the body move?

      2. What type of tissue make up bones?

      3. How are bones joined together?

      4. How do muscles move the skeletal system?

      5. How many different types of muscles are there?

 

 

      d. Essential Content/Concepts:

      1. The skeletal system supports and protects the body.

      2. Bones store minerals, allow movement and make blood cells.

      3. Where one bone meets another bone, a joint is formed.

      4. Bones are moved by muscles.

      5. Bones consist of specialized cells.

      6. Bones are held together by tissues called ligaments.

      7. Muscles are attached to bones by tendons.

      8. Muscles are masses of tissue that contract to move bones or organs.

      9. Voluntary muscles are controlled by our will.

     10. Involuntary muscles are not under our conscious control.

     11. There are two types of involuntary muscles, cardiac and smooth.

     

 

 

 e. Essential Skills:

1. Identify the major organs of the skeletal system.

2. Describe four functions of bones.

3. Describe three joints.

4. List three types of muscle.

5. Describe how skeletal muscles move bones.

6. Interpret scientific claims in different sources of information.

 

f. Vocabulary

Bones, muscles, cartilage, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscle cell, bone cell, tissue, organ, organ system, voluntary muscle, involuntary muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, skeletal muscle. Flexor, extensor, gliding joint, ball and socket joint, hinge joint, bone marrow, connective tissue

 

g. Science Misconceptions

1. Individuals can control involuntary muscles.

2. Bones do not consist of living cells.

3. The heart is not composed of muscle.

4. That the body systems are not interdependent.       

           

Activities:

 

Labs:

Broken Bones

Bon-e Voyage

http://www.defyinggravity.net/

Mr. Bones, Foss Human Body

http://sv.berkeley.edu/showcase/pages/bones.html

Pickled Bones

 

Projects:

Create a poster illustrating three muscle types and three movable joints.

 

Research:

Create a Pamphlet of Common Sports Injuries and Ways to Prevent Them

Bone and Muscle Diseases

Create a timeline for Surgical Techniques

 

Reading For Information:

How to Fly Like a Bat

 

IV. Significant Tasks (ST) #/Title: Chicken wing Dissection Significant Task

 

      a. Significant Task Introduction: Muscles and bones work together as levers for movement of body parts. The muscles of the body are under the conscious control of your sensor somatic nervous system if the system is intact. Motor nerves cause the contraction of striated muscles of your body. Muscles work in antagonistic to flex and extend the bones.        All vertebrates have similar body plans because of common ancestors in evolution. Studying the body of another vertebrate is useful to understanding your own body.

 

 

 

      b. Length/Timing: End of Unit

 

      c. Essential Questions: How do bone and muscles work together to move the body?

 

      d. Assessment Tools (AT): Lab Observation

 

     

 

UNIT RESOURCES:

            Readings, Texts, Materials, Videos

 

Suggested Science Fair Topics

 

Example Assessment Questions

 

  1. Which body system provides for movement of the body?

a. digestive   b. circulatory   c. muscular   d. endocrine

 

  1. Which group lists three parts of the skeletal system?

a. heart, stomach, brain                  b. bones, nerves, blood

c. tendons, nerves, brain                d. cartilage, ligaments, bones

 

  1. Which type of muscle is found only in the heart?

      a. voluntary    b. smooth   c. cardiac   d. involuntary

 

  1. Which activity is most likely to be controlled by smooth muscle?

a. breathing   b. walking     c. chewing     d. thinking

 

5. Which body system supports and protects other body systems?

a. digestive   b. skeletal   c. muscular   d. endocrine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. The diagram below best demonstrates that:

 

 

A. the skeleton protects body organs

B. bones are held together by joints and ligaments

C. muscles and bones work together to move body parts

D. cartilage protects and cushions bones

 

7. Imagine that you are building a robot. Your robot will have a skeleton similar to a human skeleton. If the robot needs to be able to move a limb in all directions, what kind of joint would be needed? Explain your answer.

 

 

 

 

 

 

8. Describe some of the muscle action needed to pick up a book. Include flexors and extensors in your description.