Module 6.3

 

Weather

Local and regional weather are affected by the amount of solar energy the area receives and proximity to a large body of water.

CT Science Framework Topics

 

        Science Content Standard 6.3                              CMT Expected Performances

 

SCIENCE CONTENT STANDARD 6.3

 

CONCEPTUAL THEME:

Energy in the Earths Systems – How do external and internal sources of energy affect the Earths systems?

 

CONTENT STANDARD:

6.3 - Variations in the amount of the suns energy hitting the Earths surface affect daily and seasonal weather patterns. 

 

 

 

 

GRADE-LEVEL CONCEPT:  u Local and regional weather are affected by the amount of solar energy the area receives and proximity to a large body of water.

GRADE-LEVEL EXPECTATIONS:

1.     Earth is surrounded by layers of gases (atmosphere) that influence the environment and support life.  Weather on Earth is caused by the daily changes in the temperature, pressure and amount of moisture in the lower atmosphere.  Regions of the earth experience distinct long-term climate conditions caused, in part, by different amounts of solar energy they receive.

2.     Heat energy causes molecules to move.  The molecules that make up all matter are in constant motion.  Solids, liquids and gases differ in the movement and arrangements of their molecules. Molecules in gases move randomly and independently of one another.  Molecules in liquids move around each other randomly, but are loosely held together by an attraction force. Molecules in solids are closely locked in a patterned position and can only vibrate back and forth.

3.     When heat energy is added to a substance, its molecules move faster (increased temperature) and spread apart from each other (become less densely arranged).  When heat energy is removed, molecules move slower (decreased temperature) and come together (become more densely arranged). 

4.     If enough heat energy is absorbed by a solid or a liquid, the molecules may overcome the forces holding them together and change to a new state of matter.  Solids change to liquids (melt) and liquids change to gases (vaporization) when heat energy is absorbed from the surroundings.  Conversely, heat energy is given off when gases change to liquids (condensation) or liquids change to solid (freezing).

5.     Different surfaces on Earth absorb and release solar energy at different rates. Land has a lower heat capacity than water; therefore land temperatures change more rapidly than water temperatures do. The surface temperature of large bodies of water, such as the oceans that cover a great deal of the earth, affects the temperature of the air above them. 

6.     Earths atmosphere (air) is a mixture of different amounts of gases (mainly nitrogen, followed by oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor).  Air molecules constantly press on and around objects on Earth (air pressure).  Due to the pulling force of Earths gravity, air close to Earth is more dense than air higher in the atmosphere; denser air causes greater air pressure.   

7.     Wind is caused by air moving from areas of high pressure to low pressure.  Cool, dense air is high pressure and tends to sink; warm, less dense air is low pressure and tends to rise.  Local and global winds move in predictable patterns based on uneven heating of Earths surface.

8.     Local winds can be influenced by atmospheric conditions, terrain (mountain, deserts) and closeness to large bodies of water.  Near coastal areas, the day to night temperature and pressure differences between land and water cause local winds to blow from ocean to land (sea breeze) during day and from land to ocean (land breeze) at night.

 

CONTENT STANDARD 6.3 - continued

9.     Global winds are caused by the circulation of cold, dense polar air and warm, less dense equatorial air.  The rotation of the earth, combined with the location of the continents, causes bands of wind patterns on the earth. For example, weather tends to move generally from west to east.

 

10.  Oceans are a major source of water in the air as water cycles between Earths surface and the atmosphere.  Large bodies of water absorb heat energy, causing water to evaporate.   The amount of water vapor in the atmosphere (humidity) is dependant on the temperature of the air.  Warm air holds more water vapor than cool air because it is less dense.  As warm, humid air rises and cools, its molecules become more closely spaced and the water vapor condenses into tiny water droplets that are less dense than air (clouds).  Tiny droplets may combine and become heavy enough to fall as rain (or other types of precipitation). 

11.  Weather on Earth is caused by daily variations in the temperature, pressure and humidity of different bodies of air (air masses).  Warm, moist, less dense air masses rise, thus decreasing air pressure usually indicates that cloudy, wet, warmer weather is approaching.  Cool, dry, denser air masses sink, thus increasing air pressure usually indicates clear, dry, cooler weather is approaching.

12.  When masses of warm, moist air interact with masses of cool, dry air, the boundary is called a warm front.  The way in which the air masses move past one another influences the type of weather that results. At the front, warm air rises above cold air, causing clouds and precipitation (and sometimes storms).  Weather predictions can be made based on the pattern of warm, wet, low pressure air being typically followed by cool, dry, high pressure air.

13.  Connecticut, and the northeast in general, often has rapidly changing weather because three patterns of moving air interact here: cold, dry air from the north, warm, moist air from the Atlantic ocean coastline, and air moving across the US from west to east.

 

SCIENTIFIC LITERACY TERMINOLOGY: molecule, dense, solid, liquid, gas, melting, freezing, condense, evaporate, air pressure,  humidity, air mass, cold/warm front, precipitation, global wind, sea breeze, land breeze.

CMT EXPECTED PERFORMANCES

 

C 4. Describe the effect of heating on the movement of molecules in solids, liquids and gases.

C 5. Explain how local weather conditions are related to the temperature, pressure and water content of the atmosphere and the proximity to a large body of water.

C 6. Explain how the uneven heating of the Earths surface causes winds.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

NH-Greater New Haven Science Collaborative in Earth & Physical Science

Funded by Title II Teacher Quality Partnership Grant 2007

 

Module 6.3: Weather

 

Table of Contents

 

Glossary & Teachers Background Notes

 

Lesson 6.3.1 – Assignment  #31. Physical Changes

            Lesson Plan

            Student Handout

            Student Exercise

            Application Problems

 

Lesson 6.3.2 – Assignment #2. Air Movement

            Lesson Plan

            Student Handout

            Student Exercise

            Application Problems

 

Lesson 6.3.3 – Assignment #1. Air Temperature

Lesson Plan

            Student Handout

            Student Exercise

            Application Problem

 

 

 

 

 

 


Module 6.3

 

Weather

Local and regional weather are affected by the amount of solar energy the area receives and proximity to a large body of water.

 

CT Science Framework Topics

 

        Science Content Standard 6.3                              CMT Expected Performances

14.  Earth is surrounded by layers of gases (atmosphere) that influence the environment and support life.  Weather on Earth is caused by the daily changes in the temperature, pressure and amount of moisture in the lower atmosphere.  Regions of the earth experience distinct and predictable weather conditions (climate) caused, in part, by different amounts of solar energy they receive.

15.  Heat energy causes tiny particles (molecules) to move.  The molecules that make up all matter are in constant, though invisible, motion.  Solids, liquids and gases differ in the movements and arrangements of their molecules. Molecules in gases move randomly and independently of one another.  Molecules in liquids move around each other randomly, but are loosely held together by an attraction force. Molecules in solids are closely locked in a patterned position and can only vibrate back and forth.

16.  When some heat energy is added to a substance, its molecules move faster (increased temperature) and spread apart from each other (become less densely arranged).  When heat energy is removed, molecules move slower (decreased temperature) and come together (become more densely arranged). 

17.  If enough heat energy is absorbed by a solid or a liquid, the molecules may overcome the forces holding them together and change to a new state of matter.  Solids change to liquids (melt) and liquids change to gases (vaporization) when heat energy is absorbed from the surroundings.  Conversely, heat energy is given off when gases change to liquids (condensation) or liquids change to solid (freezing).

18.  Different surfaces on Earth absorb and release solar energy at different rates. Land absorbs and releases heat faster than water. The surface temperature of large bodies of water, such as the oceans that cover a great deal of the earth, affects the temperature of the air above them.  This is one reason that Connecticuts inland areas are warmer in the day (and in summer) and cooler at night (and in winter) than coastal areas.

19.  Earths atmosphere (air) is a mixture of different amounts of gases (mainly nitrogen, followed by oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor).  Air molecules constantly press on and around objects on Earth (air pressure).  Due to the pulling force of Earths gravity, air close to Earth is more dense than air higher in the atmosphere; denser air causes greater air pressure.   

20.  Wind is air moving from areas of high pressure to low pressure.  Air above cool areas is high pressure (dense) and tends to sink, while air above warm areas is low pressure (less dense) and tends to rise.  Local and global winds move in predictable patterns based on uneven heating of Earths surface.

21.  Local winds can be influenced by atmospheric conditions, terrain (mountain, deserts) and closeness to large bodies of water.  Near coastal areas, the day to night temperature and pressure differences between land and water cause local winds to blow from ocean to land (sea breeze) during day and from land to ocean (land breeze) at night.

22.  Global winds are caused by, among other factors, the circulation of air between polar regions that receive less solar energy (colder, denser air) and equatorial regions that receive more solar energy (warmer, less dense air).  The rotation of the earth, combined with the location of the continents, causes bands of wind patterns on the earth. For example, weather tends to move from the southwestern United States toward Connecticut.

 

23.  Oceans are a major source of water in the air as water cycles between Earths surface and the atmosphere.  Large bodies of water absorb heat energy, causing water to evaporate (see GLE 4).   The amount of water vapor in the atmosphere (humidity) is constantly changing, depending on the temperature of the air.  Warm air holds more water vapor than cool air because it is less dense.  As warm, humid air rises and cools, its molecules become more closely spaced and the water vapor condenses into tiny water droplets that are less dense than air (clouds).  Tiny droplets may combine and become heavy enough to fall as rain (or other types of precipitation). 

 

24.  Weather on Earth is caused by daily variations in the temperature, pressure and humidity of different bodies of air (air masses).  Warm, moist, less dense air masses rise, thus decreasing air pressure usually indicates that cloudy, wet, warmer weather is approaching.  Cool, dry, denser air masses sink, thus increasing air pressure usually indicates clear, dry, cooler weather is approaching.

 

25.  When masses of warm, wet air interact with masses of cool, dry air, their boundary is called a front.  The way in which the air masses move past one another influences the type of weather that results. At the front, warm air rises above cold air, causing clouds and precipitation (and sometimes storms).  Weather predictions can be made based on the pattern of warm, wet, low pressure air being typically followed by cool, dry, high pressure air.

26.  Connecticut, and the northeast in general, often has rapidly changing weather because three patterns of moving air interact here: cold, dry air from the north, warm, moist air from the Atlantic ocean coastline, and air moving across the US from west to east.

 

 

 

 

C.7 Describe the effect of heating on the movement of molecules in solids, liquids, and gases.

Exercise 6.3.1 Thermal Expansion 

                         & Contraction                                                                                                                                            

 

 

 

 

 

C.8 Explain how local weather conditions are related to the temperature, pressure and water content of the atmosphere and the proximity to a large body of water.

Exercise 6.3.2 Differential Heat    

                        Absorption and

                        Radiation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C9. Explain how the uneven heating of the Earths surface causes winds and affects the seasons

Exercise 6.3.3 Air Pressure

 

Exercise 6.3.4 Wind

 

Exercise 6.3.5 Humidity

 

Exercise 6.3.6 Air Masses &  

                        Weather

 

NH-Greater New Haven Science Collaborative in Earth & Physical Science

Funded by Title II Teacher Quality Partnership Grant 2007

 

 

 

 

 

 

Module 6.3: Weather

 

Table of Contents

 

Module 6.3 Teacher Glossary... 4

 

Lesson 6.3.1..5

            Teacher Lesson Plan ..5

            Student Literacy Handout6

            Student Exercise: Balloon Science...8

           Application Problems..11

 

Lesson 6.3.2

Teacher Lesson Plan

Student Literacy Handout

Student Exercise: The Race to Heat Up & Cool Down

Application Problems

           

Lesson 6.3.3

Teacher Lesson Plan

            Student Literacy Handout

            Student Exercise: Feeling Pressured

            Application Problems

 

Lesson 6.3.4 – Wind

Teacher Lesson Plan

            Student Literacy Handout

            Student Exercise: Measuring the Wind – Building an Anemometer

            Application Problems

 

Lesson 6.3.5 – Humidity

Teacher Lesson Plan

            Student Literacy Handout

            Student Exercise: Cloud in a Jar

            Application Problems

 

Lesson 6.3.6 – Air Masses & Weather

Teacher Lesson Plan

            Student Literacy Handout

            Student Exercise: Moving Air

            Application Problems


Glossary

solid, liquid, gas, melting, freezing, condense, evaporate, cloud, wind, air pressure,  humidity, air mass, cold/warm front, precipitation, storm, global wind, sea breeze, land breeze.

 

 


Inquiry Lesson 6.3.1    Thermal Expansion & Contraction

 

Content Standard

Expected Performance

6.3 Variations in the amount of the Suns energy hitting the Earths surface affect daily and seasonal weather patterns

      Earth is surrounded by layers of gases (atmosphere) that influence the environment and support life.  Weather on Earth is caused by the daily changes in the temperature, pressure and amount of moisture in the lower atmosphere.  Regions of the earth experience distinct and predictable weather conditions (climate) caused, in part, by different amounts of solar energy they receive.

      Heat energy causes tiny particles (molecules) to move.  The molecules that make up all matter are in constant, though invisible, motion.  Solids, liquids and gases differ in the movements and arrangements of their molecules. Molecules in gases move randomly and independently of one another.  Molecules in liquids move around each other randomly, but are loosely held together by an attraction force. Molecules in solids are closely locked in a patterned position and can only vibrate back and forth.

      When some heat energy is added to a substance, its molecules move faster (increased temperature) and spread apart from each other (become less densely arranged).  When heat energy is removed, molecules move slower (decreased temperature) and come together (become more densely arranged). 

      If enough heat energy is absorbed by a solid or a liquid, the molecules may overcome the forces holding them together and change to a new state of matter.  Solids change to liquids (melt) and liquids change to gases (vaporization) when heat energy is absorbed from the surroundings.  Conversely, heat energy is given off when gases change to liquids (condensation) or liquids change to solid (freezing).

 

C 7. Describe the effect of

        heating on the movement of

        molecules in solids, liquids,

        and gases.

 

Exercise 6.3.1

 

 

 

Science Materials:

           Balloons, Small plastic water bottles, 1 L Pyrextm beakers, hot plates,     

           Tongs, oven mitts, water, ice cubes, plastic bowls, paper, pencils

                                  

Student Handout 6.3.1 – Balloon Science classroom exercise

 

Vocabulary: Changes of State     Sublimation    Condensation    Evaporation      

Plasma   Solid     Liquid    Gas      Molecules     Atoms     Bonds       

 

Inquiry: In this exercise, students will investigate the effect of heating and cooling on air molecules. Students will work in groups of four and will take turns being the experimenters and the data recorders.

 

Procedures and Directions: Review the concepts covered in the literacy handouts.

 

 

Science Concepts: When a substance undergoes a physical change it means the substance changes its form but does not change its chemical composition. For example, liquid water placed in a freezer becomes ice. Ice still has the same chemical composition as liquid water – it is made up of 2 atoms of Hydrogen for every atom of Oxygen – it is just in a solid form while water is liquid. If you heat water to boiling, it becomes water vapor (steam). Water vapor is still H2O – just in gaseous form – you cannot see it or touch it very readily – and it is certainly not liquid. Changes of state (physical changes) occur because energy (in the form of heat) is either added to or taken away from a substance. When you add heat energy to a substance, the molecules that make up the substance absorb the heat and start to vibrate faster and faster. The faster they vibrate, the greater becomes the space between them. The reverse happens if you remove energy from a substance – the molecules vibrate slower and become more tightly crammed together – thus, ice forms from liquid water.

 

TEACHER GLOSSARY & BACKGROUND

Changes of State   Sublimation    Condensation    Evaporation    Plasma 

              Solid     Liquid    Gas         Molecules     Atoms     Bonds     

 

 


Student Exercise 6.3.1: Balloon Science

 

Purpose: This experiment explores the effects of temperature on the movement of air molecules.

 

Materials:     6 round party balloons – at least 4 for each group

                        Small plastic water bottles (e.g. Poland Springstm Aquapod bottle) 

– 1 for each group

                        1000 ml Pyrextm beaker – 1 for each group

                        Hot plates or other sources of heat – needs to be carefully                                                    supervised

                      Test Tube Tongs or Oven Mitts – one for each group

                        Water

                        Ice Cubes in a medium plastic bowl – 1 bowl for every group

                        Paper

                        Pencils

                        Data Sheet

 

Methods:

1.    Carefully pour 100 ml of water in the 1 L beaker.

2.    Carefully stretch a balloon onto the opening of the empty water bottle. Observe the position of the balloon – write it down.

3.    Place the water bottle - balloon apparatus into the beaker and place the beaker onto the hot plate.

4.    Turn on the hot plate.

5.    Observe what happens to the water in the beaker as it warms up. Write down your observation.

6.    Observe what happens to the balloon. Write down your observations and make a sketch of what you see.

7.    Turn off the hot plate.

8.    Using the tongs or the oven mitt, carefully remove the test tube-balloon apparatus from the beaker and place it in the ice bowl. Observe what happens to the balloon. Record your observations and sketch what you see.

9.    Carefully place the test tube-balloon apparatus back into the still warm

water inside the beaker and observe what happens to the balloon. Write down your observations and sketch what you see.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data Chart:

 

 

 

 
 


                    Heated                                                                          Cooled

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Discussion:

1. Explain what happened to the balloon when the bottle-balloon apparatus was heated. What caused the change you observed?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 

2. Explain what happened to the balloon when the bottle-balloon apparatus was cooled in the ice bath. What caused the change you observed?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

 

 

3. Although you could not directly see the air molecules, what can you infer about their motion when the bottle-balloon apparatus was heated ?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

 

 

4. Describe the motion of the air molecules when the bottle-balloon apparatus was cooled.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            

 

5.  Based on your observations in the lab, what do you think happens to air that gets heated at the Earths surface?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

 

6.  Based on your observations, what happens to air at the Earths surface if it cooled?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

 

           

Conclusion: (Make a statement about the relationship between temperature and the movement of air molecules as demonstrated in this experiment.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 


Inquiry Lesson 6.3.2    Differential Heat Absorption & Radiation

 

Content Standard

Expected Performance

6.3 Variations in the amount of the Suns energy hitting the Earths surface affect daily and seasonal weather patterns

      Different surfaces on Earth absorb and release solar energy at different rates. Land absorbs and releases heat faster than water. The surface temperature of large bodies of water, such as the oceans that cover a great deal of the earth, affects the temperature of the air above them.  This is one reason that Connecticuts inland areas are warmer in the day (and in summer) and cooler at night (and in winter) than coastal areas.

 

C.8 Explain how local weather conditions are related to the temperature, pressure and water content of the atmosphere and the proximity to a large body of water.

Exercise 6.3.2 Differential Heat    

                        Absorption and

                        Radiation

 

 

 

Science Materials: Plastic Cups, Scissors, Black Gravel, White Gravel, Water,

           4 Thermometers for each group, Heat Source (Lamp of 

           some kind) – 1 for each group

          

Student Handout 6.3.2 – The Race to Heat Up & Cool Down

 

Vocabulary:

 

Inquiry: In this exercise, students will investigate the absorption, retention, & release of heat by different materials. Students will work in groups and will take turns being the experimenters and the data recorders.

 

Procedures and Directions: Review the concepts covered in the literacy handouts.

 

Science Concepts:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Student Exercise 6.3.2: The Race to Heat Up & Cool Down

 

Purpose: To explore how the ability to absorb heat and retain heat differs among different materials.

 

Materials Needed:

For Each Group: 3 Plastic Cups

                            Scissors

                            Black Fish Gravel or Sand

      White Fish Gravel or Sand      

      Water

      4 Thermometers           

      Desk Lamps

 

Methods:

  1. Fill each cup with one of the following materials: black gravel, white gravel, &

      water.

  2. Place the cups side by side on the table in front of you.

  3. Put a thermometer in each cup and place one thermometer on the desk in 

      front of the cups. Let the thermometers sit for two full minutes.

  4. Record the temperature reading on each thermometer in the chart provided.

  5. Turn on the lamp above all the cups.

  6. After five minutes, record the temperature reading on each thermometer in

      the chart provided. Do not forget to record the temperature of the

      thermometer sitting on the desk.

  7. After ten minutes has passed from the start of the experiment, record the

      temperature reading from every thermometer in the chart provided.

  8. After fifteen minutes has passes from the start of the experiment, record the

      temperature reading from every thermometer in the chart provided.

  9. Turn off the lamp. Wait five minutes and record the temperature reading from

      every thermometer in the chart provided.

10. Wait another five minutes, record the temperature reading from every

      thermometer in the chart provided.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data Chart:

 

Time with Light On

White Gravel

Black Gravel

Water

Desk (Air)

0 minutes

 

 

 

 

 

5 minutes

 

 

 

 

 

10 minutes

 

 

 

 

 

15 minutes

 

 

 

 

 

 

Time with Light Off

White Gravel

Black Gravel

Water

Desk (Air)

5 minutes

 

 

 

 

 

10 minutes

 

 

 

 

 

 

Results:

 

1. The material with the highest temperature reading after 15 minutes in the light was                                                    .

 

2. The material with the lowest temperature reading after 15 minutes in the light was                                                                 .

 

3. The material with the highest temperature reading after 10 minutes without the light on was                                                            .

 

4. The material with the lowest temperature reading after 10 minutes without the light on was                                                  .

 

Discussion:

 

1. Compare the temperature of each material at the start of the experiment to the 

    air temperature (the thermometer sitting on the desk). Were they similar or 

    were they very different? Can you explain your answer ? `                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

2. Compare the temperature of each material after five minutes under the light to  

    the air temperature (the thermometer sitting on the desk). Were they similar or 

    were they very different? Can you explain your answer ? `                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

3. Compare the temperature of each material after ten minutes under the light to

    the air temperature (the thermometer sitting on the desk). Were they similar or 

    were they very different? Can you explain your answer ? `                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

4. Compare the temperature of each material after fifteen minutes under the light           

    to the air temperature (the thermometer sitting on the desk). Were they similar

    or were they very different? Can you explain your answer ? `                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

 

5. Compare the temperature of each material after five minutes without the light 

    to the air temperature (the thermometer sitting on the desk). Were they similar

    or were they very different? Were they higher, lower, or the same as the

    temperatures you recorded with the light on ? Can you explain your answer ?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
6. Compare the temperature of each material after ten minutes without light        

    to the air temperature (the thermometer sitting on the desk). Were they similar

    or were they very different? Were they higher, lower, or the same as the

    temperatures under the light? Can you explain your answer ? `                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          

 

7. If the water represents the worlds oceans and the black and white gravel

    represents the worlds land area, what can you say about how the Suns 

    energy is absorbed, retained, or returned to the atmosphere by the oceans

    and the land ?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 


Data:

 

 

 

 

Material

Starting Temperature

Temperature after

5 minutes of heating

Temperature after

10 minutes of heating

Temperature after

15 minutes of heating

Temperature after

5 minutes of heating

Temperature after

10 minutes of heating

 

Black Gravel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

White Gravel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Water

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Discussion:

 

1. Based on your results, would the temperature of a body of water increase faster or slower than the land? Explain your answer.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

 

2. Compare your results from the white gravel with those from the black gravel. Based on your results, which one would you not want to be standing on in the middle of the summer? Why?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

3. Based on your results, what, if any, do you think is the relationship between a material and its temperature?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

 

Conclusion: (Make a statement that relates the information you discovered in this experiment back to the purpose of the experiment.)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Student Exercise 6.3.3. Feeling Pressured

 

Purpose: To explore the force exerted on objects by air molecules

 

Materials: 

For Each Group –

2 wide-mouth plastic jars or small plastic buckets                                               

Heavy-duty plastic bags (without holes) large enough to cover the mouth

       of the jar or bucket

           Large rubber bands or string to secure bags around jar or bucket

           Paper

 

Methods:

  1. Blow into a plastic bag and clamp the end of the plastic bag with a rubber band.
  2. Try to push the plastic bag into the small jar. Record how difficult this is.
  3. Take another plastic bag and place it inside the second jar or bucket like a liner. Use a rubber band or string to secure it around the neck of the jar/bucket.
  4. Take turns trying to pull the bag out of the jar/bucket by gently pulling on the bag at the bottom of the bucket. What happens? Record your observations.

Data:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Discussion:

1.How difficult was it to push the inflated bag into the jar/bucket? What substance in the jar/bucket affected your efforts to push the inflated bag into the larger container?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

2. How difficult was it to lift the liner bag out of the jar/bucket? What substance on top of the liner bag affected your efforts to lift the bag?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

Conclusion: (Make a statement relating what you learned from this experiment to the purpose of the experiment.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 

           

 

 

 

 


Student Exercise 6.3.4 Measuring the Wind - Building an Anemometer

 

Purpose: To construct and test a scientific instrument used to measure the speed of the wind.

 

Materials: For each student -

                       5-3 oz. paper cups

                        2 straight plastic soda straws

                        1 straight pin

                        scissors

                        paper punch

                        small stapler

                        sharp pencil with an eraser

                      Large piece of paper (2 x 3)

                        1-12 ruler

                        String

                        Tape

                  For each group of students –

                      1 small hand-held battery-powered fan

                  For the teacher -

                       Watch with second hand (stop-watch is ideal)

 

Methods:

1.Take the hole punch and punch one hole in each of four paper cups, about inch below the rim of each cup.

            2. Push a soda straw through the hole in one of the cups.

3. Fold the end of the straw and staple it to the side of the cup across from the hole.

4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for one other cup with a hole in it.

5. Take the fifth cup and punch four holes equally spaced around the rim, about inch below the rim. Punch one hole in the center of the bottom of the cup.

            6. Slide one assembled cup and straw through two opposite holes in the cup with 4 holes around the rim.

            7. Push another cup with one hole on the end of the straw just pushed through the four hole cup. Bend the straw and staple it to the one hole cup making sure that the cup faces in the opposite direction from the first cup.

            8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 with the other cup-straw assembly.

            9. Lime up all four cups so that they all face in the same direction (clockwise or counterclockwise) around the center cup.

            10. Push the straight pins through the straws where they intersect.

            11. Push the eraser end of the pencil through the bottom hole in the center cup.

            12. Push the pin into the end of the pencil eraser as far as it will go.

 

Congratulations! You have finished building your anemometer!

How to Use Your Anemometer:

 

            An anemometer is somewhat like a giant pinwheel turned sideways. When the wind blows, it pushes the cups on the anemometer around in a circle. The speed that the wind is blowing is the same speed that your anemometer is rotating at.

            In order to figure out how fast the wind is blowing, you need to count how many times your anemometer rotates in one minute. You also need to measure the circumference of the circle (in feet) made by the rotating paper cups

            Multiply the revolutions per minute by the circumference and you will have the velocity (speed) of the wind in feet per minute.

 

Method:

  1. Lay your anemometer flat on the large piece of white paper.
  2. Carefully place a mark next to the outside edge of each of the paper cups in your anemometer. Rotate the cups slightly and repeat the markings. Repeat until you have traced out a circle on the paper.
  3. Lift you anemometer off of the white piece of paper and finish connecting the marks to form a complete circle on the piece of paper.
  4. Tape the end of a piece of string to a point on the circle. From this taped point, lay out the string on top of the traced circle. Cut the end of the string at the point where it intersects the taped beginning of the string.
  5. Peel off the tape and lift up the string. Lay it against the ruler and measure how big the circumference of the circle is. Record this in your data record.
  6. The student experimenter picks up the hand-held fan and turns it on.
  7. The student observer picks up his anemometer and holds it in front of the fan – with the cup openings facing the fan.
  8. When your teacher says Start, the student observer should count how many times the anemometer makes a complete revolution until one minute is up and the teacher says Stop. Record this number in the data chart.
  9. Switch the fan to a different speed and repeat steps 7-8.
  10. Repeat steps 7-8 until every student in the group has had a chance to use           their anemometers twice.
  11.  Multiply the number of revolutions by the circumference of the circle and calculate the wind speed for each of the two fan settings. Record these numbers in the data chart.
  12.  Compare your calculations with those of the other members in your group.

 

 

 

 

           

 

           

Data:

 

Fan Setting

 

Number of Revolutions Per Minute

 

 

 

Circumference of Anemometer

 

Calculated Wind Speed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Discussion:

1. Based on your observations what is the relationship, if any, between wind speed and the force (push) it exerts on an object (anemometer cups)?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

 

2. How can scientists use anemometers to measure wind speed?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          

 

3. Why might meteorologists and other scientists want to know wind speed?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

 

Conclusion: (Make a statement, based on your observations, about the relationship between wind speed and how an anemometer works.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               


Student Exercise 6.3.5. Cloud in a Jar

 

Purpose: To examine the conditions responsible for cloud formation

 

Materials:     Large Jar       Hot Water                  Ice Cubes                  Metallic Plate

                       

Methods:     

 

  1. Pour two inches of very hot tap water into the glass container and cover with the metallic plate. Let it stand for a few minutes. Observe what is happening inside the jar. Sketch and record your observations.

 

  1. Place four ice cubes on the metallic plate. Observe what is happening inside the jar. Sketch and record your observations.

 

 

 
Data:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 

 
 


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

Discussion:

 

1. What happened in your jar? Is this what happens in nature when a cloud forms?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 

 

Conclusion: (Make a statement, based on your observations, that relates back to the purpose of the experiment.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Student Exercise 6.3.6  Moving Air

 

Purpose: The purpose of this exercise is to see how temperature influences air mass movement

 

Materials:     One clear large container or tank

                        Red food coloring

                        Ice cubes made with Blue food coloring

Ice Cubes – plain

                        Colored Pencils

                        Data Sheet

                        Hot water

                        Room Temperature Water

 

Methods:

  1. Fill the container full with room temperature water.

 

  1. Let container stand until water is completely still (about 30 seconds). This will represent the atmosphere.

 

  1. Place several drops of red food coloring in the bottom of a beaker and then fill the beaker with hot water (from the tap). This represents a warm air mass.

 

  1. Pour the hot water into the container and observe movement of the hot water within the tank. Sketch your observations using colored pencils.

 

  1. Place three blue-colored ice cubes and several other ice cubes at one end of the container. This represents a cold air mass. Observe movement of the cold water within the tank. Sketch your observations using colored pencils. Be careful not to disturb the water.

 

  1. Observe the tank for another 5 minutes. Write down your observations.

 

Data:

            Your drawing serves as your data sheet for this exercise.

 

Discussion:

1. Describe the movement of the red water (warm air mass)? Using your  

    understanding of temperature, density, & pressure relationships, explain  

    why the red water moved as it did.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

2. Describe the movement of the blue water (cold air mass)? Using your  

    understanding of temperature, density, & pressure relationships, explain  

    why the blue water moved as it did.                                                                                

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 3. If the red water represents a warm air mass and the blue water represents a cold air mass, describe what might happen in the atmosphere when a cold air mass moves into a region where a warm air mass already is.                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

           

4. What happened at the point where the red water met the blue water in your container ? Describe the movement of water in this region. Based on what you observed, what might you predict would happen in the atmosphere where a warm air mass meets a cold air mass ?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 

 

Conclusion: (Based on your observations, make a statement about how temperature influences air movements and weather.)

                                                                                                                                                  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Application Problems

Module 6.3 (Weather)

These assessment items are intended to provide closure for each lesson and help teachers determine how well the students understand the science concepts. The assessments are also intended to provide students additional practice with the lesson content. Teachers should use the assessment items as they deem appropriate. For example, teachers may wish to assign them for homework, assign them as an additional class activity or quiz at the end of a lesson, or ask students to answer them individually as they leave the class (as exit passes). Teachers may wish to use the problems as a closing class activity, asking students to solve the problem in groups and then share their answers in a whole group closing activity.

 

 

  1. You awake to a bright, sunny day, with not a cloud in the sky. It is very cold, however, with a temperature of  minus 10 degrees Celsius. The weather report predicts a high of only minus 1 degree Celsius. Your friend calls and predicts an early dismissal because of snow. Do you think your friends prediction is accurate? Why or why not?

 

 

  1. Explain why coastal areas have cooler summers and warmer winters than inland areas.

 

 

 

  1. Your friend has taken a trip to California. When she returns, she tells you that she went swimming on the beach and skiing in the mountains on the same day. Explain how there could be snow on the mountain peaks in California all year round.

 

 

4.      The table below gives the temperatures in one city over three days at various times of the day. At what point did the wind become much colder? (Adapted from TIMSS Grade 8 Science Assessment, 2003)

 

 

8 a.m.

noon

3 p.m.

6 p.m.

Thursday

5 C

10 C

10 C

8 C

Friday

10 C

15 C

5 C

6 C

Saturday

5 C

5 C

7 C

7 C

 

a)     Thursday noon

b)    Friday afternoon

c)     Saturday noon

d)    Saturday evening


  1. The earths surface has both land and water forms. Which covers most of the earths surface, land or water?  Which warms faster, land or water? What effect does this have on weather?

 

 

  1. Can peoples activities change the weather? Explain.

 

 

  1. Explain why you often see lightening before you hear thunder.

 

 

  1. City A lies about 500 miles north of the equator.

      City B lies about 500 miles south of the equator.

      City C is located right on the equator.

 

Which of the following is true? (Adapted from TIMSS Grade 8 Science Assessment, 2003)

 

a)     City A will have a colder climate than City B.

b)    City A and City B will have about the same average yearly temperature

c)     City C will be colder than City A and City B

d)    City B will have a colder climate than City A

 

 

For additional application problems, see Reading Assignments Fun-Thinking Activities