Inquiry Lesson: 6.2.1           Unique Plants of the Biomes           

Topic

Performance Expectation

 

6.2 Ecosystems

C4  Describe how abiotic factors, such as

       temperature, water and sunlight, affect the

       ability of plants to create their own food

       through photosynthesis.

 

 

SCIENCE CONTENT STANDARD 6.2

 

CONCEPTUAL THEME:

Matter and Energy in Ecosystems – How do matter and energy flow through ecosystems?

 

CONTENT STANDARD:

6.2 - An ecosystem is composed of all the populations that are living in a certain space and the physical factors with which they interact.

 

 

GRADE-LEVEL CONCEPT 1:  u  Populations in ecosystems are affected by biotic factors, such as other populations, and abiotic factors, such as soil and water supply.

GRADE-LEVEL EXPECTATIONS:

 

1.       Within ecosystems, there are interactions between the living things and the nonliving environmental features, such as water, temperature, sunlight, soil and air.  The abiotic factors impact the living organisms (for example, the temperature and availability of water affect plant and animal growth), and the living organisms impact the environment (for example, plants release oxygen to the air, or materials from decomposing leaves enrich the soil). 

2.       The sun is the main source of energy on Earth.  During photosynthesis, green plants use light energy to make sugar molecules from the atoms of water (H20) and carbon dioxide (CO2).  During this chemical change, green plants release oxygen needed by most organisms for respiration.

3.       Plants and animals take in oxygen and use it to release the energy stored in sugars and other molecules produced during the photosynthesis.  During this respiration process, CO2 is released into the air or water.

4.       Plants’ ability to do photosynthesis is affected by atmospheric conditions such as precipitation amount and air temperature.

5.       Soil is a mixture of materials that includes weathered rocks and decomposed organic material, as well as air and water.  The composition of soils affects how air and water move through the soil, and this influences the kinds of plants that can grow and the animals that rely on those plants for food. 

GRADE-LEVEL CONCEPT 2:  u Populations in ecosystems can be categorized as producers, consumers and decomposers of organic matter.

GRADE-LEVEL EXPECTATIONS:

1.     Energy and matter flow through an ecosystem.  Plants (producers) use the sugars produced during photosynthesis, along with minerals from the soil, to produce fats, proteins and carbohydrates.  Animals (consumers) obtain the essential nutrients they need by eating plants or other organisms that eat plants. 

2.     Consumers are adapted for eating different foods:  herbivores are consumers that eat only plants; carnivores are consumers that eat only animals; omnivores are consumers that eat both plants and animals. 

3.     Decomposers (mainly bacteria and fungi) consume dead plants and animals and break down the organic materials, thus returning nutrients to the environment for reuse by other organisms. 

4.     Interactions among organisms in an ecosystem occur in various ways.  In competitive relationships, organisms compete for limited resources (for example, plants in the same garden may compete for sunlight). 

CONTENT STANDARD 6.2 - continued

 

In predator/prey relationships, in which one animal eats another animal, an organism in a food web can be both a predator and the prey of another animal. 

5.     Food chains are models that show how materials and energy are transferred from one organism to another in an ecosystem.  The basis of every food chain is the energy stored in green plants.  Food webs are models that show the complex variety of energy sources available to most organisms in an ecosystem. 

6.     Regions have distinct food chains and webs that are determined by environmental conditions such as climate, elevation, topography or water quality.   Connecticut has forest and park ecosystems, as well as fresh water and marine ecosystems that include a variety of plants and animals.

7.     Populations of species within an ecosystem are affected by the availability of resources such as food, water, living space, or mates.  Populations can be reduced or increased by environmental changes caused by nature (for example, droughts, forest fires or disease) and by humans (climate change, land development or overhunting).

8.     Predators limit the size of prey populations, increasing the variety of species that can live in an area.  Fewer predators can lead to overpopulation of prey species, causing increased competition for a scarcity of resources that can lead to illness or starvation.  For example, without predators, Connecticut deer populations have increased to unhealthy levels.

9.     Organisms within a food web are interdependent, and changes in the populations of one species may affect the survival of other organisms within the web.  For example, if the mice in an ecosystem are eaten by a cat, the snakes in the area will move away.  Fluctuations over time in populations of interacting species can be represented in graphs.

10.  An energy pyramid is a model that shows the loss of energy in an ecosystem.  A large number of producers and primary consumers support a smaller number of higher-level consumers. 

11.  All organisms cause changes in the environment where they live.  They use biotic and abiotic resources and convert the matter from those resources to different forms of matter.  For example, soils can change and become depleted in a mineral when a plant population removes that mineral from the soil.  Some of the changes caused by organisms can be helpful to the ecosystem and others can damage the ecosystem.

 

SCIENTIFIC LITERACY TERMINOLOGY:

CMT EXPECTED PERFORMANCES

 

C 4. Describe how abiotic factors, such as temperature, water and sunlight, affect the ability of plants to create their own food through photosynthesis.

C 5. Explain how populations are affected by predator-prey relationships.

C 6. Describe common food webs in different Connecticut ecosystems.

 

 

 


Science Materials:

 

Student Handouts:  Biome Abiotic Factors Profile (A), World Map (B), Design a Plant (C) and Plant Data (D) The last handout is optional (see extensions)

Vocabulary:  abiotic factors, biome, photosynthesis, binomial nomenclature, adaptation, climate

Inquiry:  In this inquiry, students will identify abiotic factors associated with different biomes and create a plant species that expresses adaptations that increase its ability to survive in their particular biome.

 

Procedures and Directions:

1.   Each group will research the abiotic factors of a biome unique to their group designate its location on the world map with a dotted line and complete Plant Data Sheet.

·       Possible biomes include desert, tundra, coniferous forest, deciduous forest, tropical rain forest, temperate rain forest, estuary, grassland, savanna, desert, chaparral, or boreal forest

·      Students can use reference books from the library or the following Web sites:

 

What’s It Like Where You Live?: Biomes of the World

http://mbgnet.mobot.org/sets/index.htm

All about Nature: Biomes/Habitats

http://www.AllAboutNature.com/biomes/

Tour of Biomes

http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/biomes.html

CyberZoo’s Key to the Biomes

http://lsb.syr.edu//projects/cyberzoo/biome.html

Biology4Kids: Ecology

http://www.kapili.com/biology4kids/eco/index.html

Biomes of the World

http://www.snowcrest.net/geography/slides/biomes/index.html

2.   Each group will report their findings to the class.

3.   Groups exchange Biome Abiotic Factors Profiles and design a plant which expresses    adaptations that will increase its ability to survive according to the information supplied on          the Profile Sheet they receive.

4.   Biome Abiotic Factors Profiles are returned to original groups along with the Design a Plant     Sheet. 

5.   The original group represents experts on their biome and as experts they will comment on the other groups design.

 

Questions to Guide Student Inquiry:

 

·      How would abiotic factors of a biome influence its biotic factors?

·      Which group thinks their biome has the most annual rainfall?  the least annual rainfall?

·      Which group has the longest growing season?  the shortest growing season?

·      Which group has the greatest average daily or monthly temperature? the least….?

·      Can specific plants or animals live in more than one biome?

 

Science Concepts:  The Earth’s surface is divided into a number of biomes characterized by a distinctive climate.  Plants within a biome express adaptation that help them survive that biome’s particular abiotic factors.

 

Extensions:

 

·      Students complete a sheet similar to “Design a Plant” but instead of creating a plant they research a unique or characteristic plant that grows their biome

·      Have students include in their research biomes in peril. Then have students map the current range of the biome and the area of the biome 100 to 500 years ago. Using clear acetate overlays, students could show on their maps changes that have occurred in their biome over time. Students should also discuss the reasons for the biome’s decline and any major species threatened in their biome.

·      Choose an area of the world for a road trip and describe the biomes that you would encounter during your trip. For example, you might start a road trip in Washington, D.C., and travel west to California and then up the Pacific coast to Alaska. How could you distinguish one biome from another? What characteristics set each biome apart?

 

This lesson was adapted from “Unique Plants of the Biomes” by Mary C. Cahill at DiscoverySchool.com.. http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/pdf/plantsofthebiomes/plantsofthebiomes.pdf  Last accessed July 21, 2007.

 

 

Biome Abiotic Factors Profile

 

Research the abiotic factors of a biome unique to their group.  The table includes some examples of abiotic factors.  Continue to add other abiotic factors that you discover as you research your biome.  Next, shade in the biome you studied on the world map.

 

Names:

 

Biome:

 

Abiotic Factor

Research Findings

 

Annual rainfall

 

 

Length of Growing Season

 

 

Average Daily Temperature

 

 

Average Monthly Temperature

 

 

Temperature extremes

 

 

Seasonal changes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Handout A

Handout B

Design a Plant

Identify adaptations that you believe are required by a plant to survive in your assigned biome.  Give an explanation for your decision.  Produce a sketch of your plant and give it both a common name and a scientific name.

 

Plant’s common name

 

Plant’s scientific name

 

Adaptations with explanation

1                

2                

3                

4                

5                

6                

 

Handout C

Plant Data

Choose one distinctive plant from the biome you researched and complete the following questions. All questions should be answered in complete sentences.

Biome name

Plant’s common name

Plant’s scientific name

 

1       Describe the abiotic factors of the biome.

2       Describe a unique characteristic of many of the plants living in the biome.

3       Describe the structure of your plant’s roots, stems, or leaves. How tall is it? What does it look like?

4       Explain any unique adaptations of the plant you picked. How do these adaptations help it survive in this biome?

5       What abiotic factor of the biome has the greatest effect on this particular plant?

6       Do you think this plant could live in a biome with very different abiotic factors? Why or why not?

 

How does this plant fit into the existing food web of the biome?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Handout D

Inquiry Activity: 6.2.2                      Plant Growth

Topic

Performance Expectation

6.2 Ecosystems

C4  Describe how abiotic factors, such as temperature,

       water and sunlight, affect the ability of plants to

       create their own food through photosynthesis.

 

Science Materials:

            10ml graduated cylinder                                  Closet

            Potting soil                                                      Window

            Sand                                                                Refrigerator

            Metric ruler                                                     Plastic Bag

            Plant seeds                                                      Plant food

           

Student Handouts:  Background Information (A) and Lab Report Format (B)

Vocabulary:  abiotic factors, biotic factors, nutrients, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, energy, metabolism

Inquiry:  In this inquiry, students will explore the plant growth and how changes in abiotic factors can alter their growth.

 

Procedures and Directions:

1.  Although there are thousands of plants which are as different as people, they all share the same requirements in order to survive, grow and flourish. These are often referred to as abiotic factors. Abiotic factors are non-living elements found within an ecosystem.  There are six abiotic factors that affect plant growth: air, water, space, temperature, light and soil (nutrients). These are the basic requirements that plants need to grow.

 

·      For simple, very brief student reading, see "Factors Affecting Plant Growth.” (www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/gpe/case1/c1facts3a.html)

·      The most significant point for them to understand is that if a factor affects plant growth then what is being disruptive is the plant’s ability to acquire energy (photosynthesis) or use energy (cellular respiration).

 

3.   Students, in groups of four, will design an experiment to determine if a plant will respond

      differently (i.e., varied growth) in habitats which experience different availability of abiotic factors (e.g., sun, rain, etc).

Questions to Guide Student Inquiry:

·      What would happen to a plant if they altered the availability of one of these abiotic factors?

·      What adaptations would lessen the amount of stress for the plant?

·      In which biomes do plants usually experience this type of stress for part of the year?

·      Refer to Handout B

Science Concepts:  Adaptations improve an organism’s ability to survive and grow given the present physical and chemical conditions of their environment.  Plant species have varied ability to respond and continue to thrive in an environment that has experienced change. 

Note to Teachers

Possible ways to meet the requirements of the variable are readily available.

 

 

 

 

 

 

This lesson was adapted from “Abiotic Factors & Plants: A Local Pollution Study with Global Implications”” by Maureen Taylor French at Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1999/6/99.06.06.x.html#e

Last accessed July 21, 2007.

 


Background Information

 

The six factors which effect plant growth are heat, water, air, soil/nutrients, light and space. A number of different variables, such as the amount or type of water, or the quality of soil can affect these factors which affect plant growth. You will design and conduct an experiment which explores the effect or quality of these factors on plant growth.

During this activity, you must design a lab plan, and record the problem you wish to investigate, your hypothesis (prediction), materials and document your procedure. Your procedure is a step-by-step plan of your experiment’s directions, written for a fifth grade audience.  Refer to Handout B.

Materials:                                                      

            Potting soil                                                      Window

            Sand                                                                Refrigerator

            Metric ruler                                                     Plastic Bag

            Plant seeds                                                      10ml graduated cylinder

            Plant food                                                        Closet

 

            If you require another item then ask your teacher about the possibility of acquiring it for      your experiment.

           

You will set up a graph to record data. Plant growth is dependent on the factor, therefore, it is the dependent variable, recorded on the "Y" axis. The independent variable, that which is recorded on the "X" axis, is the date you record plant growth.

 

Directions:

 

1.   Label your planters with your initials.

2.   Label the control planter "C" and the variable planter (the abiotic factor you will change) "V".

3.   Pour soil into both planters until they are 3/4 full. If you are varying soil, make sure potting soil goes into the control planter and your experimental soil goes into the planter marked "Variable"!

3.   Follow directions on the back of the seed.  Unless you are investigating how restricting space (overcrowding) effects plant growth.

4.   Water your seeds using a graduated cylinder. Measure the same amount of water for each planter. Remember if water is the experimental variable use the same amount of water but varied in the planter labeled "V"!

5.   Set up a graph for recording data. Put dates when you will observe plant growth on the X (horizontal) axis. Label the Y axis in centimeters to record growth. Title your graph.

6.   Record all information on the preliminary lab report.

 

Handout A

Name______________________________________           Date_______________

Lab Report Format

1.   Clearly state the purpose of your experiment.

      The purpose states the reason why you are doing the experiment. Purposes can be stated as a question.

 

2.   Write a hypothesis for your experiment.

      The hypothesis is stated as an If..., then... statement. The 'If' part of the statement is based on related facts that you know to be true. The 'then' part of the statement is an educated guess on the outcome.

 

3.   Materials

      This is a list of all equipment and chemicals needed to do the experiment. Be sure to give     quantities.

 

4.   Procedure

      The procedure tells exactly what you did to achieve your results. So, it is important to be accurate in explaining what you did. The procedure is written step-by-step, numbered (like cooking directions).

5.  Describe the results of your experiment on the next page. Use tables, charts, or graphs.

 

6.   State your conclusion in the experiment.

      The conclusion explains results. It addresses the purpose and indicates if your hypothesis was correct.  You conclusions should be supported by data.

 

 

 

7.  How valid are your conclusions? Do you have of confidence in your results? Could you improve your experiment?

8.  How could you apply your results to your life/ community? What did you learn?

 

 

 

 

Handout B

Inquiry Activity: 6.2.3                      Food Chains

Topic

Performance Expectation

6.2 Ecosystems

C5  Explain how populations are affected by predator

       prey relationships.

 

C6  Describe common food webs in different

       Connecticut ecosystems.

 

Materials:

            Organism Information Cards (see attachments)

            10 spools of string or yarn

            Dowel that fits through of spools and long enough to hold all 10 spools at once

 

Student Handouts:  N/A

Vocabulary:  community, food web, trophic level, ecosystem, producer, consumer, decomposer, photosynthesis, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, food chain, nutrient, energy  

Inquiry:  In this inquiry, students will explore energy transfer and availability in a Connecticut lake community.

 

Procedures and Directions:

  1. Tell the students that they will construct a food web that includes organisms common to lake communities in Connecticut.
  2. Pass out the “Organism Information Cards” to the students.  If there are any extra cards then they should only be Chrysophyta.  All other card types should be in use.
  3. Give the sun the dowel with the spools.
  4. “Is there any producers in the community?”  These students would obtain the ends of one spooled strings and pull it some distance from the sun.  If all the spools are not needed then ask the students “Does energy enter an earths atmosphere and not get used by producers?”  Yes, producers at not efficient enough to use all the energy coming from the sun.
  5. Ask the students “Which organisms in the community would consume the producers?”   These individuals will take the end of the strings from the producer.  The original spool stays with the sun and unspools as the energy is transferred. 

      Important:

You will notice that there are fewer primary consumers then producers.  This is a very important detail that most be explained.  There is a loss of energy as energy is transferred from one organism to another.  This means that there is more energy in a lower feeding level to support the next higher feeding level.   This pattern of diminishing energy will continue to the top of the highest feeding level.  This means that  organisms in higher feeding levels can have more than one string going to them.

  1. The game progresses as each member of the food chain accepts energy (end of string) and passes it on.
  2. Continue transferring the energy (end of string) until all ends have reached the top of the food chain.
  3. Have the students draw the food web that they just modeled. 

Questions to Guide Student Inquiry:

            It will also be lost as the organisms goes about surviving.

      Decomposers when it dies.

      Yes, nutrients can be recycled.  Decomposers are responsible for freeing nutrients from       dead organisms.         

      It would feed on all listed organisms except the Chryophyta and Daphnia.

 

 

Science Concepts:  For an organism to survive it must acquire energy and nutrients.  A food web identifies where each species within a community acquires these resources.  Energy decreases in value as it is transferred through the organisms in the web making less energy available for organisms in higher trophic levels.

Extension:

You can have them add the hypothetical example of the bear or some other organism, like an osprey.  Osprey feed on large fish in lake and river habitats in Connecticut.  You can tell them this information or have them do research on their life-history in order to gain the knowledge to add it to their food web.

This lesson were adapted from “Food Webs/Chains” by Esther Zack at Science in the City. http://www.laep.org/target/science/city_butterflies/food_chain.html

Last accessed July 21, 2007.

This lesson were adapted from “Forest Food Webs” at Discoveryschool.com. http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/programs/forests/index.html

Last accessed July 22, 2007.

Background for the Teacher:

            A group of organisms that interact with and depend upon one another is called a community. The movement of matter and energy through a community can be studied by examining its food web. As organisms eat other organisms, energy and nutrients pass through various feeding levels. These feeding levels are called trophic levels.

Three major types of organisms live in an ecosystem: producers, consumers, and decomposers. Producers create their own food through the process of photosynthesis. Consumers must hunt or forage for the nutrients they need to survive. Decomposers obtain nutrients by breaking down parts of organisms into simple forms; for example, mushrooms feed off plant tissues on tree bark, and bacteria on a forest floor feed off the leaf tissue of fallen leaves, causing them to decay.

 

Consumers have been classified into three types: herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores. Herbivores are animals that eat only plant material, such as the caterpillar. Carnivores eat animals; for example, forest ants eat other insects. And omnivores eat both plant material and animal flesh. Ask students to look at the consumers in Handout A and decide which type best describes each one.

 

Food webs are diagrams that show how organisms living in an ecosystem depend on one another to obtain the nutrients and energy they need to live. A food chain is a smaller, less complicated diagram that examines one piece of the food web to show how specific organisms obtain their energy from other organisms. Food chains show a single line of energy transfer. An example of a food chain from the food web above would be oak tree—beetle—woodpecker—bird of prey (the beetle eats the oak tree, the woodpecker eats the beetle, and the bird of prey eats the woodpecker).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUN

The Sun

The Sun is the most prominent feature in our solar system.

It is the largest object and contains approximately 98% of the total solar system mass. The Sun's interior could hold over 1.3 million Earths...

Diameter:  1,390,000 kilometers

Mass:  1.98 x 1030 kilograms

Surface Temperature: 5506°C

Distance from Earth:  149.6 x 106 kilometers

The American Heritage® Dictionaryhttp://www.ask.com/web?q=kids facts sun&o=12572&ef_id=1370:3:390db54f38bccb4cd5dc833e04153f0e_768267325:trp6jkNIYX4AABs-04oAAAAB:20070723233410

sun  (n.)  A star that is the basis of the solar system and that sustains life on Earth, being the source of heat and light.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Snapping Turtle

Chelydra serpentina

The snapper is our biggest freshwater turtle, up to 35 cm shell length. Recognize it by its size, its muscular limbs and long tail or by the sawtooth back edge of its carapace. Snapper's show aggressive behaviour when threatened - it cannot run or hide, so its only defense is attack. They only come out on land in late June and early July to dig a nest and lay eggs. Leave them alone.

Snappers frequent shallow lakes and streams with lots of plants. They eat fish, amphibians, and some bigger and smaller creatures located with their especially keen sense of smell. Unlike Painted Turtles, they are rarely seen out of the water basking in the sun. They hibernate underwater in winter.

 

Source:

http://museum.gov.ns.ca/mnh/nature/turtles/snap.htm

 

 

 

Lake Trout
Salvelinus namaycush

The lake trout is by far the largest of the trouts. It lives in deep cold lakes and is also known as Great Lakes trout, Mackinaw trout and salmon trout. It feeds on virtually all forms of flesh which abound in its home waters. Minnows, smelt, eels and any variety of small fishes are part of the lake trout's diet. Once the surface waters warm the lake trout retreats to deep water.

 

 

Source:

http://www.aa-fishing.com/ct/connecticut-trout-fishing.html

 

Alewife

Alosa pseudoharengus

The alewife is a sea-run fish species native to the North American continent. Spawning populations of alewives are found in rivers and streams from Newfoundland to South Carolina.  Every spring, adults ascend rivers and streams to spawn in freshwater lake and pond areas.  After the eggs hatch, the young-of-the-year spend two to six months in the freshwater environment, growing 1½ to 5 inches in size before they begin to migrate to sea. Adult and juvenile alewives are planktivorous (main food source is zooplankton), although they occasionally eat insects and fish larvae, including larval alewives.

 

Source :

http://www.maine.gov/dmr/rm/alewifefactsheet.htm

 

 

Alewife

Alosa pseudoharengus

The alewife is a sea-run fish species native to the North American continent. Spawning populations of alewives are found in rivers and streams from Newfoundland to South Carolina.  Every spring, adults ascend rivers and streams to spawn in freshwater lake and pond areas.  After the eggs hatch, the young-of-the-year spend two to six months in the freshwater environment, growing 1½ to 5 inches in size before they begin to migrate to sea. Adult and juvenile alewives are planktivorous (main food source is zooplankton), although they occasionally eat insects and fish larvae, including larval alewives.

 

Source :

http://www.maine.gov/dmr/rm/alewifefactsheet.htm

 


 

Bullfrog tadpole

Rana catesbeiana

The Bullfrog is our largest frog.  They inhabitat ponds and lakes where they very often become the kings and queens of their domain.

The adults of these large amphibians have been known to eat everything from small birds to other frogs.

Their tadpoles grow very large and can reach the size of a small egg.  The tadpoles are omnivores, eating producers and small primary consumers.  They can sometimes take up to three years to develop.  The eggs are laid by the thousands in a thin sheet on the surface of the water

 

Source:

http://ctamp.homestead.com/bullgreen.html

 

 

Bullfrog tadpole

Rana catesbeiana

The Bullfrog is our largest frog.  They inhabitat ponds and lakes where they very often become the kings and queens of their domain.

The adults of these large amphibians have been known to eat everything from small birds to other frogs.

Their tadpoles grow very large and can reach the size of a small egg.  The tadpoles are omnivores, eating producers and small primary consumers.  They can sometimes take up to three years to develop.  The eggs are laid by the thousands in a thin sheet on the surface of the water

 

Source:

http://ctamp.homestead.com/bullgreen.html

 

 

http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/15300/15301/waterflea3_15301.htm

 

This card equals   3   Ephemeroptera

 

Waterflea

Daphnia pulex

“The common water flea, Daphnia pulex can be found in almost all sorts of eutrophic (rich in nutrients) waters. Daphnia feeds on bacteria, fine detritus and very small algae. They reproduce in summer mostly parthenogenetic, that is, the eggs develop without undergoing fertilization. At the end of the summer, some of the eggs develop into the smaller males, capable of fertilizing the eggs in females, which then develop into the so called 'winter eggs'; mostly only one or two are present in the females. These eggs can also be found in populations under stress, such as during the drying up of a pond.”

 

http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/artjun99/wflea.html

http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/15300/15301/waterflea3_15301.htm

 

This card equals   3   Ephemeroptera

 

Waterflea

Daphnia pulex

“The common water flea, Daphnia pulex can be found in almost all sorts of eutrophic (rich in nutrients) waters. Daphnia feeds on bacteria, fine detritus and very small algae. They reproduce in summer mostly parthenogenetic, that is, the eggs develop without undergoing fertilization. At the end of the summer, some of the eggs develop into the smaller males, capable of fertilizing the eggs in females, which then develop into the so called 'winter eggs'; mostly only one or two are present in the females. These eggs can also be found in populations under stress, such as during the drying up of a pond.”

 

http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/artjun99/wflea.html


 

 

 

This card equals   3   Ephemeroptera

 

Waterflea

Daphnia pulex

“The common water flea, Daphnia pulex can be found in almost all sorts of eutrophic (rich in nutrients) waters. Daphnia feeds on bacteria, fine detritus and very small algae. They reproduce in summer mostly parthenogenetic, that is, the eggs develop without undergoing fertilization. At the end of the summer, some of the eggs develop into the smaller males, capable of fertilizing the eggs in females, which then develop into the so called 'winter eggs'; mostly only one or two are present in the females. These eggs can also be found in populations under stress, such as during the drying up of a pond.”

 

http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/artjun99/wflea.html

 

This card equals   3   Ephemeroptera

 

Waterflea

Daphnia pulex

“The common water flea, Daphnia pulex can be found in almost all sorts of eutrophic (rich in nutrients) waters. Daphnia feeds on bacteria, fine detritus and very small algae. They reproduce in summer mostly parthenogenetic, that is, the eggs develop without undergoing fertilization. At the end of the summer, some of the eggs develop into the smaller males, capable of fertilizing the eggs in females, which then develop into the so called 'winter eggs'; mostly only one or two are present in the females. These eggs can also be found in populations under stress, such as during the drying up of a pond.”

 

http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/artjun99/wflea.html

 

This card equals   3   Ephemeroptera

 

Waterflea

Daphnia pulex

“The common water flea, Daphnia pulex can be found in almost all sorts of eutrophic (rich in nutrients) waters. Daphnia feeds on bacteria, fine detritus and very small algae. They reproduce in summer mostly parthenogenetic, that is, the eggs develop without undergoing fertilization. At the end of the summer, some of the eggs develop into the smaller males, capable of fertilizing the eggs in females, which then develop into the so called 'winter eggs'; mostly only one or two are present in the females. These eggs can also be found in populations under stress, such as during the drying up of a pond.”

 

http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/artjun99/wflea.html

 

This card equals   3   Ephemeroptera

 

Waterflea

Daphnia pulex

“The common water flea, Daphnia pulex can be found in almost all sorts of eutrophic (rich in nutrients) waters. Daphnia feeds on bacteria, fine detritus and very small algae. They reproduce in summer mostly parthenogenetic, that is, the eggs develop without undergoing fertilization. At the end of the summer, some of the eggs develop into the smaller males, capable of fertilizing the eggs in females, which then develop into the so called 'winter eggs'; mostly only one or two are present in the females. These eggs can also be found in populations under stress, such as during the drying up of a pond.”

 

http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/artjun99/wflea.html

 

 

 

This card equals 8 rotifers

Class Monogonanta

“Wheel animals or rotifers are common in rivers, lakes, puddles, and gutters. They are one of the smallest living animals. Rotifers feed on algae, which they catch by bating a crown of cilia to draw water into their mouths. During dry periods, these animals become dormant. Once they are in this state they can stay inactive for many years.”

 

Sources:

http://www.kidsbiology.com/animals-for-children.php?animal=Rotifer

 

 

This card equals 8 rotifers

Class Monogonanta

Wheel animals or rotifers are common in rivers, lakes, puddles, and gutters. They are one of the smallest living animals. Rotifers feed on algae, which they catch by bating a crown of cilia to draw water into their mouths. During dry periods, these animals become dormant. Once they are in this state they can stay inactive for many years.

 

Sources:

http://www.kidsbiology.com/animals-for-children.php?animal=Rotifer

This card equals 8 rotifers

Class Monogonanta

“Wheel animals or rotifers are common in rivers, lakes, puddles, and gutters. They are one of the smallest living animals. Rotifers feed on algae, which they catch by bating a crown of cilia to draw water into their mouths. During dry periods, these animals become dormant. Once they are in this state they can stay inactive for many years.”

 

 

Sources:

http://www.kidsbiology.com/animals-for-children.php?animal=Rotifer

This card equals 8 rotifers

Class Monogonanta

“Wheel animals or rotifers are common in rivers, lakes, puddles, and gutters. They are one of the smallest living animals. Rotifers feed on algae, which they catch by bating a crown of cilia to draw water into their mouths. During dry periods, these animals become dormant. Once they are in this state they can stay inactive for many years.”

 

 

Sources:

http://www.kidsbiology.com/animals-for-children.php?animal=Rotifer

 

 

This card equals 20 Chrysophyta

 

Phylum Chrysophyta

“A large group of algae commonly called golden algae, found mostly in freshwater. Originally they were taken to include all such forms except the diatoms and multicellular brown algae, but since then they have been divided into several different groups based on pigmentation and cell structure. In many chrysophytes the cell walls are composed of cellulose with large quantities of silica. Formerly classified as plants, they contain the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and c. Under some circumstances they will reproduce sexually, but the usual form of reproduction is cell division.”

 

Sources:

http://www.lenntech.com/eutrophication-water-bodies/algae.htm

This card equals 20 Chrysophyta

 

Phylum Chrysophyta

“A large group of algae commonly called golden algae, found mostly in freshwater. Originally they were taken to include all such forms except the diatoms and multicellular brown algae, but since then they have been divided into several different groups based on pigmentation and cell structure. In many chrysophytes the cell walls are composed of cellulose with large quantities of silica. Formerly classified as plants, they contain the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and c. Under some circumstances they will reproduce sexually, but the usual form of reproduction is cell division.”

 

Sources:

http://www.lenntech.com/eutrophication-water-bodies/algae.htm

This card equals 20 Chrysophyta

Phylum Chrysophyta

“A large group of algae commonly called golden algae, found mostly in freshwater. Originally they were taken to include all such forms except the diatoms and multicellular brown algae, but since then they have been divided into several different groups based on pigmentation and cell structure. In many chrysophytes the cell walls are composed of cellulose with large quantities of silica. Formerly classified as plants, they contain the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and c. Under some circumstances they will reproduce sexually, but the usual form of reproduction is cell division.”

 

Sources:

http://www.lenntech.com/eutrophication-water-bodies/algae.htm

This card equals 20 Chrysophyta

Phylum Chrysophyta

“A large group of algae commonly called golden algae, found mostly in freshwater. Originally they were taken to include all such forms except the diatoms and multicellular brown algae, but since then they have been divided into several different groups based on pigmentation and cell structure. In many chrysophytes the cell walls are composed of cellulose with large quantities of silica. Formerly classified as plants, they contain the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and c. Under some circumstances they will reproduce sexually, but the usual form of reproduction is cell division.”

 

Sources:

http://www.lenntech.com/eutrophication-water-bodies/algae.htm


 

This card equals 20 Chrysophyta

Phylum Chrysophyta

“A large group of algae commonly called golden algae, found mostly in freshwater. Originally they were taken to include all such forms except the diatoms and multicellular brown algae, but since then they have been divided into several different groups based on pigmentation and cell structure. In many chrysophytes the cell walls are composed of cellulose with large quantities of silica. Formerly classified as plants, they contain the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and c. Under some circumstances they will reproduce sexually, but the usual form of reproduction is cell division.”

 

Sources:

http://www.lenntech.com/eutrophication-water-bodies/algae.htm

This card equals 20 Chrysophyta

Phylum Chrysophyta

“A large group of algae commonly called golden algae, found mostly in freshwater. Originally they were taken to include all such forms except the diatoms and multicellular brown algae, but since then they have been divided into several different groups based on pigmentation and cell structure. In many chrysophytes the cell walls are composed of cellulose with large quantities of silica. Formerly classified as plants, they contain the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and c. Under some circumstances they will reproduce sexually, but the usual form of reproduction is cell division.”

 

Sources:

http://www.lenntech.com/eutrophication-water-bodies/algae.htm

This card equals 20 Chrysophyta

Phylum Chrysophyta

“A large group of algae commonly called golden algae, found mostly in freshwater. Originally they were taken to include all such forms except the diatoms and multicellular brown algae, but since then they have been divided into several different groups based on pigmentation and cell structure. In many chrysophytes the cell walls are composed of cellulose with large quantities of silica. Formerly classified as plants, they contain the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and c. Under some circumstances they will reproduce sexually, but the usual form of reproduction is cell division.”

 

Sources:

http://www.lenntech.com/eutrophication-water-bodies/algae.htm

This card equals 20 Chrysophyta

Phylum Chrysophyta

“A large group of algae commonly called golden algae, found mostly in freshwater. Originally they were taken to include all such forms except the diatoms and multicellular brown algae, but since then they have been divided into several different groups based on pigmentation and cell structure. In many chrysophytes the cell walls are composed of cellulose with large quantities of silica. Formerly classified as plants, they contain the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and c. Under some circumstances they will reproduce sexually, but the usual form of reproduction is cell division.”

 

Sources:

http://www.lenntech.com/eutrophication-water-bodies/algae.htm


 

This card equals 20 Chrysophyta

Phylum Chrysophyta

“A large group of algae commonly called golden algae, found mostly in freshwater. Originally they were taken to include all such forms except the diatoms and multicellular brown algae, but since then they have been divided into several different groups based on pigmentation and cell structure. In many chrysophytes the cell walls are composed of cellulose with large quantities of silica. Formerly classified as plants, they contain the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and c. Under some circumstances they will reproduce sexually, but the usual form of reproduction is cell division.”

 

Sources:

http://www.lenntech.com/eutrophication-water-bodies/algae.htm

This card equals 20 Chrysophyta

Phylum Chrysophyta

“A large group of algae commonly called golden algae, found mostly in freshwater. Originally they were taken to include all such forms except the diatoms and multicellular brown algae, but since then they have been divided into several different groups based on pigmentation and cell structure. In many chrysophytes the cell walls are composed of cellulose with large quantities of silica. Formerly classified as plants, they contain the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and c. Under some circumstances they will reproduce sexually, but the usual form of reproduction is cell division.”

 

Sources:

http://www.lenntech.com/eutrophication-water-bodies/algae.htm

This card equals 20 Chrysophyta

Phylum Chrysophyta

“A large group of algae commonly called golden algae, found mostly in freshwater. Originally they were taken to include all such forms except the diatoms and multicellular brown algae, but since then they have been divided into several different groups based on pigmentation and cell structure. In many chrysophytes the cell walls are composed of cellulose with large quantities of silica. Formerly classified as plants, they contain the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and c. Under some circumstances they will reproduce sexually, but the usual form of reproduction is cell division.”

 

Sources:

http://www.lenntech.com/eutrophication-water-bodies/algae.htm

This card equals 20 Chrysophyta

Phylum Chrysophyta

“A large group of algae commonly called golden algae, found mostly in freshwater. Originally they were taken to include all such forms except the diatoms and multicellular brown algae, but since then they have been divided into several different groups based on pigmentation and cell structure. In many chrysophytes the cell walls are composed of cellulose with large quantities of silica. Formerly classified as plants, they contain the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and c. Under some circumstances they will reproduce sexually, but the usual form of reproduction is cell division.”

 

Sources:

http://www.lenntech.com/eutrophication-water-bodies/algae.htm

 

Inquiry Activity: 6.2.4                      Connecticut Ecosystems

Topic

Performance Expectation

6.2 Ecosystems

C5  Explain how populations are affected by predator

       -prey relationships.

 

C6  Describe common food webs in different

       Connecticut ecosystems.

 

Science Materials:     N/A

Student Handouts:  Food Web for a New England Wetland (A)

Vocabulary:  community, food web, trophic level, ecosystem, producer, consumer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumer, decomposer, photosynthesis, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, food chain, nutrient, energy

Inquiry:  In this inquiry, students will explore interaction between organisms in a Connecticut ecosystem and the outcome of these interactions on individual species in the community.

 

Procedures and Directions:

1.   The class will brainstorm a list of 10 – 20 organisms common to New Haven.  The list should include organism from all three groupings: producers, consumers, and decomposers.

2.   Construct a food web through class discussion on the board or have individual groups produce their own food web.

3.   They begin the next step their completed food web

4.   A group will begin by selecting an organism of their choice to eliminate from this community and crossing it out with an “X.”

5.   They will then choose a second organism by circling it.

6.   The group will then analyze the community interactions to decide what effect the absence of the organism with the “X” has on the circled organism. 

7.   Students will construct a food web of the organisms they observe in their neighborhood and make a decision as to which species, if removed, would have greatest negative effect on the community.

 

Questions to Guide Student Inquiry:

 

·      What eventually happens to the energy? 

      It is lost to the environment.

·      Does this food web contain a food chain with producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer and tertiary consumer

·      Would a community contain as many primary consumers as tertiary consumers?  Why?  No.  Energy is lost as it moves through the community so there is not as much energy available for a tertiary consumer as there was for a primary consumer.

·      Explain how the absence of the organism you crossed out will affect these other two organisms in this community.

      Will their population size increase/decrease?  Why?

      Will a change in their population size affect any other organisms in the community?             Why? 

 

Science Concepts:   Organisms in a community interact with each other to the extent that their presence or actions can have neutral, positive or negative effects on the other members of the community.  These effects are linked to an organism ability or inability to influence the availability of resources in the community.