UNH  Module 5.1   SOUND

 

SCIENCE CONTENT STANDARD 5.1

CONCEPTUAL THEME:

Energy
Transfer and Transformations -What is the role of energy in our world?

 

CONTENT STANDARD:

5.1 – Sound and light are forms of energy.

 

GRADE-LEVEL CONCEPT 1: u Sound is a form of energy that is produced by the vibration of objects and is transmitted by the vibration of air and objects.

GRADE-LEVEL EXPECTATIONS:

  1. There are a variety of sounds in our environment.  Sounds have characteristics, such as loudness, pitch and quality (or “timbre”), that allow them to be identified. 
  2. Sound is made when materials vibrate. For sound to be perceived, there must be a vibrating object, a material through which the vibrations are transferred (for example, air, water or a string), and a receiver (for example, an ear). 
  3. Objects can be caused to vibrate by actions such as striking, strumming, plucking or blowing. 
  4. Sounds can vary in loudness (“volume”).  Volume is affected by the strength of the force causing the vibration.  For example, striking a drum forcefully or gently produces sounds with different volumes.
  5. Sounds can have a high or low tone (“pitch”).  The pitch of a sound depends on the speed of the vibration.  Objects that vibrate quickly have a high pitch, while those that vibrate slowly have a low pitch.
  6. Pitch is affected by characteristics such as the shape, length, tension or thickness of the vibrating material.  For example, varying the length or thickness of a guitar string affects the pitch of the sound it makes.
  7. Sound travels (is “transmitted”) through materials by causing them to vibrate.  Sound is not transmitted if there are no materials to vibrate. Solids, liquids and gases (air) transmit sound differently; sound moves fastest and most easily through solids.
  8. Sounds can be reflected or absorbed, depending on the properties of the material it hits.  Sound tends to bounce off smooth, hard surfaces and be absorbed by soft, porous surfaces.

 

KEY SCIENCE VOCABULARY:  vibration, transfer, volume, pitch, transmit, reflect, absorb

CMT EXPECTED PERFORMANCES

 

B 17.     Describe the factors that affect the pitch and loudness of sound produced by vibrating objects.

B 18.     Describe how sound is transmitted, reflected and/or absorbed by different materials.

Note: Light (5.1, B 19) is addressed in a separate module (5.1/5.4 Light)

 

 

University of New Haven (UNH) - Greater New Haven Science Collaborative

in Earth and Physical Science

Funded by Title II Teacher Quality Partnership Grant 2007


MODULE 5.1 SOUND

 

Table of Contents

 

Glossary and Teachers’ Background Notes

 

Lesson 5.1.1 

            Lesson Plan: Making Sounds Louder

            Application Problems

            Student Handout: Making Sounds Louder

 

Lesson 5.1.2

            Lesson Plan: Exploring Pitch

            Application Problems

            Student Handout: Exploring Pitch

 

Lesson 5.1.3

            Lesson Plan: Sound Transmission, Reflection, and Absorption

            Application Problems

            Student Handout: Sound Transmission, Reflection, and Absorption 

 

 

 


GLOSSARY AND BACKGROUND

Absorbed: Objects absorb sound and light energy like soil can absorb rain. Objects only absorb part of the sound or light energy that arrives on their surface. Energy that bounces off is called reflected energy, and the energy that goes on through is called transmitted energy.

Bowing: is one method of putting a string into vibration. One object, the bow, is drawn in a continuous movement across a string. Violin bows are made with long horse tail hairs which are kept taught by a thin piece of wood.

Color: Light energy can be of many different colors. The prismatic colors from deep red through green to deep blue (violet) can be seen in rainbows and oil spills. We see many other colors when two or more prismatic colors are in the light. White light has all the colors of the rainbow in it. Our cloths are colored because they reflect some but not all of the colors, we see the color of the reflected light. The light they did not reflect was absorbed. Black clothes absorb all colors, white cloths reflect all colors, and red cloths reflect red colored light.

Conductors of sound: are materials that conduct, or transfer, sound energy from one place to another. When we speak and listen, we are hearing sound that was conducted through air. To transfer sound energy from a ticking clock we usually use air but we can hear sound conducted sound through plastic rulers and some other materials.

Conductors of light: are materials that conduct or transfer light from one place to another. Air conducts light, clear glass conducts light, colored glass or plastic only conducts some colors. Metal does not conduct light, metals reflect a lot of light.

Energy: is an amount of activity in things. Or, it is the amount that is stored ready to make activity. A vibrating object has energy in it. If the object vibrates fast enough we can hear the sound energy traveling in the vibrating air. If you pull a string sideways you are applying a force to pull it and moving a distance to the side. Force x Distance = Work, this is the energy you put into the string. The string uses that energy to vibrate and the energy is transferred to vibrating air, what we call sound. We can not see them but electric charges vibrate very quickly, and can make electro-magnetic vibrations, what we call light energy.

Loudness: is the amount of sound reaching our ear. A lot of sound is loud, a little sound is quiet. As we get closer to a source of sound we hear that sound more loudly. As we move away from the source, the sound is spread over a larger space and we only get a small part of the sound in our ear and the sound is quiet.

Pitch: is the property of sound that ranges from high, squeaky, tinny sounds at one end to low, deep, bass, sounds at the other. Small, short, and tightly stretched things make higher pitched sounds than larger, longer, and less tightly stretched things.

Potential Energy: A pulled string, a lifted ball, and a bent ruler all have stored, or ‘potential’ energy.

Reflection: Light energy and sound energy that arrives at an object and bounces off is called reflected energy. Shiny objects reflect light very well, and a mirror is engineered to reflect very well. Hard flat surfaces, like the walls in a gymnasium reflect sound energy very well. Rooms where a lot of the sound reflects back from the walls tend to be very loud. Rooms with soft curtains, soft toys, and soft bedding tend to be quiet rooms because a lot of the sound energy is absorbed and not reflected.

Refraction: is the bending of light that occurs when light crosses from one type of material to another type. The differences can be quite small, such as a small change in path direction when going from colder air to hotter air. This accounts for the shimmering over a candle, the twinkling of stars, and mirages over hot roads. Light coming up out of water and crossing into air can have very strong changes in direction. This bending of the light can produce the visual trick of a pencil looking bent, or the incorrect location of an object (fish) within the water. Light crossing into and out of a glass lens or bowl is also refracted.

Timbre: Pronounced ‘tambr’. (Also know as tone color or quality.) This is the quality of sounds that allow us to distinguish two sounds that have both the same pitch and loudness. Timbre is what makes a piano distinguishable from a trumpet? If you speak the vowel sound ‘a’ followed by ‘e’ you will be altering the timbre of your voice. The differences arise from the distribution of energy between the many different frequencies present in the complex sounds. A simple sound is called a pure tone and is found in some annoyingly pure electronic beeps and in the sounds from tuning forks. These have only one frequency.

Transfer: Energy can be transferred from one place to another. Light in the bulb is transferred to the wall when a flashlight is pointed at the wall. Sound is transferred from a vibrating object to several listening ears by traveling through the air. The energy that was transferred, or moved, is still in the form of light or sound energy. Conducting materials are good at transferring.

Transform: Energy can be transformed from one form to another. Energy in vibrating objects can be transformed into sound energy. Electrical energy can be transformed into motion in electric cars, and light energy in bulbs.

Transmit: Energy that goes into something, travels through it, and leaves on the far side is transmitted energy. Colored plastic transmits some colors but not others.

Work: is how much energy we put into changing an object’s motion. Work is equal to the size of the force multiplied by the distance pushed. W=FxD. A vibrating object puts a force onto the air and moves it a distance too, this is work.

 


University of New Haven, Inquiry Lesson 5.1.1       Making Louder Sounds   (More Sound Energy)

Concepts

Performance Expectations(Objectives

Energy Transfer and Transformations – What is the role of energy in our world?

5.1 - Sound and light are forms of energy.

¨     Sound is a form of energy that is produced by the vibration of objects and is transmitted by the vibration of air.

 

 

B 17.   Describe the factors that affect the pitch and loudness of sound produced by vibrating objects.

[The purpose of this lesson is to explore how sound is produced by vibrating objects and to identify factors that affect the loudness of sound that is produced.]

Science Materials (for each grp of students):3 rulers, 2 marbles, 2 rubber bands, 2 foam arches, 4 cups.

 

WARNING If you do not want the students to have the noisy fun balloons until they have completed the earlier tasks, then remove them from the packets before handing out the packets! J

 

Student Handout 5.1.1: Making Louder Sounds

Vocabulary:  sound, energy, volume (loudness of sound), vibration

Inquiry: In this inquiry, students will experiment with different materials to identify the relationship between volume (loudness of sound) and the size of the vibration. Students will make different noise makers and experiment with loudness and softness by producing vibrations. Students will find some objects that do not vibrate well. Students can make repeatable sounds with a stretched rubber band or with a ruler placed over a hard object. Students will make standard sounds by dropping a ball from different heights and gauge the loudness of other sounds against their standard.

 

Procedures and Directions: Ask students to predict what they think produces sound. Guide students through Task 1 together, as a class and discuss how sound is produced through vibrations. Then assign students to groups to make and rank the noisemakers (see Handout 5.1.1).

 

Questions to Guide Student Inquiry:

1.     Why does your sound maker get quieter as time goes by?  Why is it quieter as you move further away from the source?

2.     Why does the same ruler sound louder when snapped over the edge of some objects as opposed to others? Try comparing a ruler held against a hard desk with one held against a thick book.

3.     What increased when you pull something further and harder?   What motion is occurring on all your noise makers?

4.     If you drop a ball from two different heights, why does one height make a quieter sound? 

5.     When you speak at a plastic cup loudly, is the vibration larger?

6.     How does Force x Distance relate to the loudness of sound?

7.     If you hold the cup further away from your mouth, is the vibration more?

 

Science Concepts: Sound is produced through vibrations of objects. Sounds can be created by using a variety of materials that will vibrate. Some softer objects do not vibrate and do not produce sounds. The loudness of the sound is affected by the amount of vibration. The closer we are to a sound, the louder it sounds.


Application Problems

Lesson 5.1.1

These assessment items are intended to provide closure for each lesson and help teachers determine how well the students understand the science concepts. The assessments are also intended to provide students additional practice with the lesson content. Teachers should use the assessment items as they deem appropriate. For example, teachers may wish to assign them for homework, assign them as an additional class activity or “quiz” at the end of a lesson, or ask students to answer them individually as they leave the class (as “exit passes”). Teachers may wish to use the problems as a closing class activity, asking students to solve the problem in groups and then share their answers in a whole group closing activity.

 

1.     A school bell rings every morning. What causes the sound made by the bell?

Motion, vibration in the material of the bell.

 

 

2.   Imagine that you have a bell that looks like the one below. You ring the bell softly at first.

  1. How can you make the bell sound louder? 

Make it vibrate more vigorously by hitting it harder.

 

  1. Describe the different motion you would see when you make the bell louder.

The vibration would be larger, this is the fuzzy blurring of the edges of a vibrating object.

 

  1. If you stopped the motion of the bell only by holding the bell in your hand, would the sound stop?

Yes

 

  1. If you stopped the motion of the clapper only by holding the clapper in your hand, would the sound stop?

No

 

 

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.   Why can you hear what people are saying when they are next to you and not when they are much farther away?

 

(Sound spreads out over the surface of a sphere, the larger the distance it travels the larger the surface (think of blowing up a balloon). The more spread out the energy is the quieter the sound.)


Handout 5.1.1 (page1/2)                Making Louder Sounds                             Name .......................

Date .........................

 

           

Task 1: Hold the cup just in front of your mouth. Speak into the cup and feel the cup.

Try saying “Hubble bubble toil and trouble” or “Avada Kedavra”.

Speak again and feel the front of your neck.

 

What does the movement of the cup feel like? .....buzzy fuzzy, vibrating, ticklish ........................

What movement is always found when objects make sound? ...vibration.................................

 

Task 2:  Each student should choose one of the objects and make a noise with the object. Describe how you made noise with each noisemaker below:

 

Object Used                                      What did you do to make the noise?

Marble

 

Rubber Band

 

Ruler

 

Foam Arch Snapper

 

 

Make the same noise again, as you did above, using the same method. Then, rank your noise makers from quietist to loudest. You may notice that the same object can make different amounts of noise. You should try to be consistent, making about the same amount of noise each time you use one object.

 

Quietest        

                        1. ..............................................................................................

                        2.  .............................................................................................

                        3.  .............................................................................................

                        4.  .............................................................................................

Loudest


Handout 5.1.1 (page 2/2)

Task 3 :  Work with a partner. Use the ruler so that you can drop the marble 1 cm onto the table. This will be your standard amount of sound.

 

Drop your ball from 1cm, 5cm, and 25cm onto the table and notice that the loudness changes with distance.

 

Task 4:  Work with a partner. One of you will drop the marble 1cm to make a standard sound. The other chooses to use either the rubber band, the plastic ruler, or the foam arch snapper. Manipulate this one object so that it makes sounds that are sometimes louder, sometimes about the same, and sometimes quieter than the falling marble. Complete the table below.

 

Object used      …………………………….

Distance   Snapped

Stretched or Plucked

 

    Quieter than the marble

    dropped 1cm                                ……………..      cm               This is the shortest distance

 

    About the same as  the  

    marble dropped 1cm                  ……………..      cm

 

    Louder than the marble

    dropped 1cm                                ……………..      cm               This is the longest

 

What makes sounds louder?

.....................More energy, more motion, larger force, more distance pulled back..MORE WORK

What makes sounds softer?

...................Less of the above  Concentrate on WORK and energy..........................................

Why is it important to be listening at the same distance from the two sound sources?

...........The energy gets spread out as you get further away, so we have to control for this spreading out of energy. ..................................................................................
 Inquiry Lesson 5.1.2                         Exploring Pitch

Concepts

Performance Expectations(Objectives

Energy Transfer and Transformations – What is the role of energy in our world?

5.1 - Sound and light are forms of energy.

¨     Sound is a form of energy that is produced by the vibration of objects and is transmitted by the vibration of air and objects.

 

 

B 17.   Describe the factors that affect the pitch and loudness of sound produced by vibrating objects.

[The purpose of this lesson is to explore how pitch is created and to identify the factors that create pitch.]

 

Science Materials: 4 nails of various size, 3 wooden bars various sizes,  4 latex free balloons,  1 three ring binder, 1 rubber band, 4 rulers, 20cm of pipe insulation, 4 narrow straws and 4 wider straws.

Student Handout 5.1.2 Exploring Pitch

Vocabulary:  pitch, vibration

 

Inquiry: In this inquiry, students will explore how the pitch of similar objects is related to their size. They will also change the pitch of sound by changing the size and the tension or tightness of objects.

 

Procedures and Directions: Ask students to list a few animals and rank the noises they make, from high pitched squeals (such as a pig) to low pitched noises (such as a cow). Guide students to understand the concept of pitch and make sure to differentiate it from volume (loudness). For example, they may be able to hear both the pig’s and the cow’s loud noises from far away, but the noise each animal makes sounds different, because of the pitch of the noise.

 

 

Questions to Guide Student Inquiry

 

1.     Why are soft objects not used in sound makers? 

2.     Is there a connection between the size of objects and the quality of the sounds they make?

3.     Why can the same rulers make different sounds?

4.     How can the neck of the balloon make different pitch sounds? 

5.     How does the pitch change as the vibrations speed up?

 

Science Concepts: Pitch is the property of sound that ranges from high, squeaky, tinny sounds at one end to low, deep, bass, sounds at the other. Small, short, and tightly stretched objects make higher pitched sounds than larger, longer, and less tightly stretched objects. Changing the length of a string changes the pitch, longer makes it deeper, shorter makes it higher. Changing the tension of a string changes the pitch, higher tension, the higher the pitch, lower tension (slacker) the lower the pitch.

 

 

 


Application Problems

Lesson 5.1 Exploring Pitch

These assessment items are intended to provide closure for each lesson and help teachers determine how well the students understand the science concepts. The assessments are also intended to provide students additional practice with the lesson content. Teachers should use the assessment items as they deem appropriate. For example, teachers may wish to assign them for homework, assign them as an additional class activity or “quiz” at the end of a lesson, or ask students to answer them individually as they leave the class (as “exit passes”). Teachers may wish to use the problems as a closing class activity, asking students to solve the problem in groups and then share their answers in a whole group closing activity.

 

1.     A wire is cut into four pieces of different lengths. Each piece is stretched to the same tightness and the ends are tied to a block of wood. Which of the pieces, shown below, would give the lowest pitch if it were plucked in the middle?

           

            a)        ............

                       

 

 

 


            b)    ...................

 

 

 

 


c)     ........................

 

 

 

 


                d) ...................................

  

 

(Adapted from NAEP Grade 8, 2005 Science Assessment)

Answer, d) associate lower pitches with longer and larger items

 

2. Humans have vocal folds in our necks. They are somewhat like rubber bands and we can feel them vibrate when we speak. Explain how humans change the pitch of sound with our vocal chords?

By making our vocal folds low tension and large mass they move slowly making low pitches, by making them high tension and low mass we make them high pitch. Blowing raspberries with our lips produces the same behaviors.
Handout 5.1.2 (page 1/3)               Exploring Pitch
                                           Name .......................

Date .........................

 

 

Task 1:  Hold the foam insulation on the table so that its two edges point up, not down.

Place the nails and blocks of wood across the U shaped foam.

Hit the center of the objects (a pencil will do nicely for hitting them). 

Choose one type of object and arrange the objects in order from low to high pitch.

 

Record your data below.

 

 

                                                            METAL

Lowest Pitch             1. length.........................      

                                    2. length.........................

                                    3. length.........................

Highest Pitch                        4. length ........................       Longest piece of metal

 

 

                                                            WOOD

Lowest Pitch             1. length ........................      

                                    2. length ........................

Highest Pitch                        3. length ........................       Longest

           

 


Handout 5.1.2 (page 2/3)

 

Task 2: Place a ruler across the edge of the desk such that a different length hangs off the table each time. For example, start with about 15 centimeters of the ruler hanging off the desk.

 

Hold the ruler flat on the table with the palm of your hand. Tap the edge of the ruler and note the vibration’s speed and pitch. Repeat the task, keeping less of the ruler off the desk each time. Record your data in the table below:

 

 

Length off  the desk

What did you notice about the speed of the vibrations?

What did you notice about the pitch?

15 cm

 

 

 

Longer rulers vibrate more slowly

Longer rulers make lower pitch sounds

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What conclusion can you draw about the relationship between the speed of the vibration and the pitch?

......................Low pitch is associated with slow vibration speeds............................................

 

.......The lowering of the pitch of a sound is often a good indication that a battery is failing. .......Think of a car engine cranking with a dead or nearly dead battery, or an electric toothbrush or toy with dying battery. ...............................................................................

 

 

Task 3:  Put one narrow straw inside one wide straw, so that you can slide it in and out. Blow across the end of the straw and listen to the pitch of the sound. Change the total length of the straw by sliding the narrow straw in and out, and listen to hear the change to the tone. Write your conclusion.

 

When the straw gets longer the sound from blowing across it, gets  ...Lower in pitch...........

When the straw gets shorter the sound from blowing across it, gets ...Higher in pitch...........

 


Handout 5.1.2 (page 3/3)

 

Task 4:  Put your rubber band around your closed ring binder. Slide a ruler under the rubber band and turn the ruler sideways to make the band tight. Pluck the band and move the ruler to see how to change the sound.

 

Find two different ways to change the pitch of the band; you may move the ruler.

(Hint, What made the pitch change in Task 3?)

 

Describe one way to make the pitch higher.

 

...................Shorter length............................................................................................

 

.........................................................................................................................................................

 

Keeping the length the same, find another way to change the pitch. Describe how you can make the pitch go higher using this method.

 

.................Higher tension (more force stretching the band)........................................

 

.......................................................................................................................................................

 

 

 

 

Task 5: Let air out of a balloon while stretching the neck sideways so you get different pitches.

 

Describe what you did to make a high-pitched sound.

 

......................Pull it taught with more force................................................................................

 

......................Make the lips thin.................................................................................................

 

Describe what you did to make a low-pitched sound.

 

......................Less force ( also fatter heavier rubber lips) .............................................................

 

.......................................................................................................................................................

 

 

 


Inquiry Lesson 5.1.3             Sound Transmission, Reflection, Absorption

Concepts

Performance Expectations(Objectives

Energy Transfer and Transformations – What is the role of energy in our world?

5.1 - Sound and light are forms of energy.

¨     Sound is a form of energy that is produced by the vibration of objects and is transmitted by the vibration of air and objects.

 

 B 18.    Describe how sound is transmitted, reflected             and/or absorbed by different materials.

 

[The purpose of this lesson is to explore how sound is transmitted, reflected and/or absorbed by different materials.]

 

 

Science Materials: 1 ticking timer, samples of various materials including ear plugs, 4 squares of carpet padding, 4 plastic cups, wooden rod, file hanger with metal strip, 4 plastic rulers.

Student Handout 5.1.3 Sound Transmission, Reflection, and Absorption

Vocabulary: transmission, reflection, absorption

 

Inquiry: In this inquiry, students will investigate how sound travels through different materials. Students will rank materials by their ability to transmit sounds. They will decide which materials are better at absorbing, transmitting and reflecting sound.

 

Procedures and Directions: Ask students how fast they think sound travels. Have them recall a thunder storm. Tell students that both the lightening and the thunder happen at the same time. Ask them why they usually see the lightening first, and a while later, they hear the thunder. Guide students to understand that this phenomenon occurs because the light travels faster than the sound; it takes longer for the sound to reach our ears, than it does for the light to reach our eyes. In this lesson, students will investigate which materials transmit sound better. To introduce Task 2, ask students if they have ever heard an echo. Ask them what they think makes an echo. In the second task, students will explore how sound is absorbed and reflected (to make an echo).

 

Questions to Guide Student Inquiry

1. Does sound have to travel through air?  What other materials can sound travel through?

2. Do sounds go through all materials as easily? Where does lost sound energy go?

3. What makes an echo? (Imagine hitting a tennis ball against a wall and having it bounce back).

4. Can you hear as well when you are wearing your ear muffs?

5. Can you hear outside sounds better with the window open or closed?

6. Which rooms are noisy and which rooms are quiet? Are the materials in the rooms different?

 

Science Concepts: Sound is reflected when sound strikes a different material than the one it is traveling through. When the sound is reflected the sound can be heard louder. In extreme cases, where there is a long delay between the original sound and the reflected sound, then there is an echo. Most of the time we do not hear reflected sound as an echo. Sound energy that is not reflected is either transmitted through the second material or it is absorbed and turned into small amounts of heat. Soft materials absorb a lot of sound. Hard materials reflect a lot of sound. Many materials, especially air, transmit sound energy well.


Application Problems

Lesson 5.1. 3

Sound Transmission, Reflection, and Absorption

These assessment items are intended to provide closure for each lesson and help teachers determine how well the students understand the science concepts. The assessments are also intended to provide students additional practice with the lesson content. Teachers should use the assessment items as they deem appropriate. For example, teachers may wish to assign them for homework, assign them as an additional class activity or “quiz” at the end of a lesson, or ask students to answer them individually as they leave the class (as “exit passes”). Teachers may wish to use the problems as a closing class activity, asking students to solve the problem in groups and then share their answers in a whole group closing activity.

 

 

  1. Which of the following materials is most likely to absorb sound?

a)     A soft curtain

b)    A door

c)     A window

d)    A stone wall

 

  1. The sun is very loud, but we can not hear it here on planet Earth. We can see light energy from the sun. Which of the following is true?

a)     Empty space, which we call a vacuum, transmits both sound energy and light energy

b)    Empty space, which we call a vacuum, transmits sound but not light

c)     Empty space, which we call a vacuum, transmits light but not sound

d)    Empty space, which we call a vacuum, does not transmit either sound or light

 

 

  1. Here are three words: absorb, reflect, and transmit. Write the word that is closest to each of the following ideas:

 

 

a)     Bounces off                 .......Reflects..................................

 

 

b)    Goes through              .......Transmit..................................

 

 

c)     Gets lost within           ........Absorb.................................

 


Handout 5.1.3 (page 1/3)   Sound Transmission, Reflection, and Absorption

Name ........................

Date .........................

 

Task 1:  Place one piece of the soft carpet padding on the table.

Place the ticking timer on its back on the mat.

Put a plastic cup over your ear.

Put a ruler so that it touches the cup and the timer. Listen carefully

 

Then instead of the ruler use the metal strip of the file hanger between the timer and the cup.

Then instead of the metal strip use the cardboard of the file hanger between the timer and cup.

Then instead of the metal bracket dangle loose string between the cup and the timer.

 

Rank materials by their ability to transmit sound (let sound travel). Describe the textures of the materials through which the sound traveled (was transmitted). Record your data below:

 

 

Loudest                     Material                                 What does the material feel like (texture)?

                        1. ..............     ..........Harder..................................

                        2.  ..............    .............................................

                        3.  ..............    .............................................

4.  ………...  ............ Softer.......................................

Quietest

 

Task 2: Hold the cup over your ear and hold a ruler so that it touches the cup and the timer. Now pull the cup off the end of the ruler and place one of the soft ear plugs between the cup and ruler. Compare the amount of sound you get with and without the ear plug.

Write your observations here.            ..............................................

............................Quieter with ear plug................................................................................

This is like part of an electrical circuit with an insulator in it.
Handout 5.1.3 (page 2/3)

Task 2 continued

What is the difference between using the ear plug when it is squeezed tight and using it when it is relaxed and expanded?   ............Absorbs more sound when expanded............................

..................................................................................................................................................

Does the ear plug let more sound through when the sound goes across the long length (end to end) or the shorter length (side to side)?   ......More goes across the short path.......................

Task 3 Put the timer, on its back, directly on the desk. Put your ear to the desk some distance from the timer and listen. Then introduce 1, then 2, then 3, then 4 layers of carpet underlay between the timer and the desk. You should stack them like pancakes. Record your data by putting an x in the correct place in each row.

What kinds of materials transmit sounds most easily?  ……………………………………………….

………Hard materials.………………………………………………….

 

If the sound energy was not transmitted, where did it go?  …Absorbed and turned to heat…..

 

………………………………………………………………………The most useless form of energy!

 

The sound energy that was not transmitted was ……Absorbed………….. . (fill in one word)


Handout 5.1.3 (page 3/3)

 

Task 4: Think of a loud place. List some hard and flat objects in that room.

            Think of a quiet place. List some soft materials you find in the quiet room.

 

Loud Room

Quiet Room

 

 

Hard flat surfaced materials

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Soft open fabrics

 

What do you think happens when sound travels through the air and hits a hard object?

 

............Bounces off (reflects)...................................................................

 

.........................................................................................................................................................

 

What do you think happens when sound travels through the air and hits a soft object?

 

..............Goes inside and is absorbed.............................

 

.........................................................................................................................................................

 

 

The word reflect means to “bend back.” The word absorb means to “soak up.”

 

Does a soft material absorb or reflect sound? absorb

 

Does a hard material absorb or reflect sound? reflect

 

 

 


Handout 5.1.1 page 1/2                 Making Louder Sounds                 Name ........................

 

Date .........................

 

Task 1: Hold the cup just in front of your mouth. Speak into the cup and feel the cup.

Try saying “Hubble bubble toil and trouble” or “Avada Kedavra”.

Speak again and feel the front of your neck.

 

What does the movement of the cup feel like? .......................................

What movement is always found when objects make sound? ...........................

 

Task 2:  Each student should choose one of the objects and make a noise with the object. Describe how you made noise with each noisemaker below:

 

Object Used                                      What did you do to make the noise?

Marble

 

Rubber Band

 

Ruler

 

Foam Arch Snapper

 

 

Make the same noise again, as you did above, using the same method. Then, rank your noise makers from quietist to loudest. You may notice that the same object can make different amounts of noise. You should try to be consistent, making about the same amount of noise each time you use one object.

 

Quietest        

                        1. ...........................................................

                        2.  ...........................................................

                        3.  ...........................................................

                        4.  ...........................................................

Loudest


Handout 5.1.1 (page 2/2)

Task 3 :  Work with a partner. Use the ruler so that you can drop the marble 1 cm onto the table. This will be your standard amount of sound.

 

Drop your ball from 1cm, 5cm, and 25cm onto the table and notice that the loudness changes with distance.

 

Task 4:  Work with a partner. One of you will drop the marble 1cm to make a standard sound. The other chooses to use either the rubber band, the plastic ruler, or the foam arch snapper. Manipulate this one object so that it makes sounds that are sometimes louder, sometimes about the same, and sometimes quieter than the falling marble. Complete the table below.

 

Object used      …………………………….

Distance   Snapped

Stretched or Plucked

 

    Quieter than the marble

    dropped 1cm                                ……………..      cm    

 

    About the same as  the  

    marble dropped 1cm                  ……………..      cm

 

    Louder than the marble

    dropped 1cm                                ……………..      cm

 

What makes sounds louder?

.....................................................................................................................................................

What makes sounds softer?

.....................................................................................................................................................

Why is it important to be listening at the same distance from the two sound sources?

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Handout 5.1.2 (page 1/3)               Exploring Pitch                               Name ........................

 

Date .........................

 

 

Task 1:  Hold the foam insulation on the table so that its two edges point up, not down.

Place the nails and blocks of wood across the U shaped foam.

Hit the center of the objects (a pencil or large nail will do nicely for hitting them). 

Choose one type of object and arrange the objects in order from low to high pitch.

 

Record your data below.

 

 

                                                            METAL

Lowest Pitch             1. length....................           

                                    2. length....................

                                    3. length....................

Highest Pitch                        4. length ....................

 

 

                                                            WOOD

Lowest Pitch             1. length ....................          

                                    2. length ....................

Highest Pitch                        3. length ....................

           

 


Handout 5.1.2 (page 2/3)

 

Task 2: Place a ruler across the edge of the desk such that a different length hangs off the table each time. For example, start with about 15 centimeters of the ruler hanging off the desk.

 

Hold the ruler flat on the table with the palm of your hand. Tap the edge of the ruler and note the vibration’s speed and pitch. Repeat the task, keeping less of the ruler off the desk each time. Record your data in the table below:

 

 

Length off  the desk

What did you notice about the speed of the vibrations?

What did you notice about the pitch?

15 cm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What conclusion can you draw about the relationship between the speed of the vibration and the pitch?

.........................................................................................................................................................

 

............................................................................ ………………………………………………………

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

 

Task 3:  Put one narrow straw inside one wide straw, so that you can slide it in and out. Blow across the end of the straw and listen to the pitch of the sound. Change the total length of the straw by sliding the narrow straw in and out, and listen to hear the change to the tone. Write your conclusion.

 

When the straw gets longer the sound from blowing across it, gets  .........................................

When the straw gets shorter the sound from blowing across it, gets .........................................

 


Handout 5.1.2 (page 3/3)

 

Task 4:  Put your rubber band around your closed ring binder. Slide a ruler under the rubber band and turn the ruler sideways to make the band tight. Pluck the band and move the ruler to see how to change the sound.

 

Find two different ways to change the pitch of the band; you may move the ruler.

(Hint, What made the pitch change in Task 3?)

 

Describe one way to make the pitch higher.

 

........................................................................................................................................................

 

........................................................................................................................................................

 

Keeping the length the same, find another way to change the pitch. Describe how you can make the pitch go higher using this method.

 

.........................................................................................................................................................

 

.........................................................................................................................................................

 

 

 

 

Task 5: Let air out of a balloon while stretching the neck sideways so you get different pitches.

 

Describe what you did to make a high-pitched sound.

 

........................................................................................................................................................

 

........................................................................................................................................................

 

Describe what you did to make a low-pitched sound.

 

........................................................................................................................................................

 

........................................................................................................................................................

 

 

 


Handout 5.1.3 (page 1/3)   Sound Transmission, Reflection, and Absorption

 

 Name ........................

 

Date .........................

 

Task 1:  Place one piece of the soft carpet padding on the table.

Place the ticking timer on its back on the mat.

Put a plastic cup over your ear.

Put a ruler so that it touches the cup and the timer. Listen carefully

 

Then instead of the ruler use the metal strip of the file hanger between the timer and the cup.

Then instead of the metal strip use the cardboard of the file hanger between the timer and cup.

Then instead of the metal bracket dangle loose string between the cup and the timer.

 

Rank materials by their ability to transmit sound (let sound travel). Describe the textures of the materials through which the sound traveled (was transmitted). Record your data below:

 

 

Loudest                     Material                                 What does the material feel like (texture)?

                        1. ..........................     …………………………………….............................................

                        2.  .........................    ................................................................................................

                        3.  ………..............    ................................................................................................

4.  ………..............    ................................................................................................

Quietest

 

Task 2: Hold the cup over your ear and hold a ruler so that it touches the cup and the timer. Now pull the cup off the end of the ruler and place one of the soft ear plugs between the cup and ruler. Compare the amount of sound you get with and without the ear plug.

Write your observations here.            .............................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................


Handout 5.1.3  (page 2/3) Task 2 continued

What is the difference between using the ear plug when it is squeezed tight and using it when it is relaxed and expanded?   ……………………………………………...................................................

.........................................................................................................................................................

Does the ear plug let more sound through when the sound goes across the long length (end to end) or the shorter length (side to side)?   ......................................................................................

 

Task 3 Put the timer, on its back, directly on the desk. Put your ear to the desk some distance from the timer and listen. Then introduce 1, then 2, then 3, then 4 layers of carpet underlay between the timer and the desk. You should stack them like pancakes. Record your data by putting an x in the correct place in each row.

What kinds of materials transmit sounds most easily?  ……………………………………………….

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…….

 

If the sound energy was not transmitted, where did it go?  …………………………………………...

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

The sound energy that was not transmitted was …………………………………. . (fill in one word)


Handout 5.1.3 (page 3/3)

 

Task 4: Think of a loud place. List some hard and flat objects in that room.

            Think of a quiet place. List some soft materials you find in the quiet room.

 

Loud Room

Quiet Room

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What do you think happens when sound travels through the air and hits a hard object?

 

.........................................................................................................................................................

 

.........................................................................................................................................................

 

What do you think happens when sound travels through the air and hits a soft object?

 

........................................................................................................................................................

 

........................................................................................................................................................

 

 

The word reflect means to “bend back.” The word absorb means to “soak up.”

 

Does a soft material absorb or reflect sound?

 

Does a hard material absorb or reflect sound?