Module 5.1 Light & 5.4 Lenses

 

Content Standards

Expected Performances

Energy Transfer and Transformations – What is the role of energy in our world?

5.1 - Sound and light are forms of energy.

¨     Light is a form of energy that travels in a straight line and can be reflected by a mirror, refracted by a lens, or absorbed by objects.

 

B 1.      Describe how light is absorbed and/or reflected by different surfaces.

 

Science and Technology in Society – How do science and technology affect the quality of our lives?

5.4 - Humans have the capacity to build and use tools to advance the quality of their lives.

¨     Advances in technology allow individuals to acquire new information about the world.

 

B 2.      Compare and contrast the structures of the human eye with those of the camera.

B 3.      Describe the uses of different instruments, such as eye glasses, magnifiers, periscopes and telescopes, to enhance our vision.

 

 

 

 


Module 5.1

GRADE-LEVEL CONCEPT 2: u Light is a form of energy that travels in a straight line and can be reflected by a mirror, refracted by a lens, or absorbed by objects.

GRADE-LEVEL EXPECTATIONS:

  1. Light travels in straight paths away from a source of illumination in all directions until it hits an object.  Some sources of illumination produce their own light (for example, the sun, fire, light bulb); other sources of illumination reflect light produced by something else (for example, the moon or a mirror).
  2. Light interacts with objects in various ways; it can be reflected off the object, absorbed by the object, or refracted through the object.
  3. Materials can be classified based on how much light passes through them.  Transparent materials allow most light to pass through them. Translucent materials allow some light to pass through them.  Opaque materials do not allow any light to pass through them.
  4. Objects that have flat, smooth surfaces reflect light and produce a mirror-like image.  Objects that have curved or uneven surfaces scatter the reflected light and produce distorted or blurry images.
  5. Light always reflects away from a mirror at the same angle that it hits the mirror.  The angle of incoming light equals the angle of reflected light.
  6. Objects that block light traveling from a source produce shadows.  The shape, length, direction and clarity of a shadow depend on the shape and position of the object.
  7. Light changes direction (“refracts”) as it passes from one transparent material to another (for example, as it passes from air to water or through lenses.

 

KEY SCIENCE VOCABULARY:  reflect, absorb, refract, transparent, translucent, opaque, angle

 


Module 5.4

GRADE-LEVEL CONCEPT u Advances in technology allow individuals to acquire new information about the world.

GRADE-LEVEL EXPECTATIONS:

1.     People design optical tools (for example, binoculars, telescopes, eyeglasses or periscopes) that enable them to see things better or to see what cannot be seen by human eyes alone.  Optical tools change the path of light by reflecting or refracting it.

2.     Throughout history new optical technologies have led to new discoveries and understandings that change people’s lives. 

3.     Periscopes allow people to see things that are not within their line of sight (for example, around corners, over walls, under a table, or above the ocean’s surface from a submerged submarine).

4.     Telescopes make distant objects appear larger (and therefore closer).

5.     Magnifiers, such as hand lenses, microscopes or make-up mirrors, make objects appear larger.

6.     The shape of a lens or mirror (concave, convex or flat) affects the direction in which light travels:

a.      Telescopes focus light using a lens that refracts the light (refracting telescope) or a curved mirror that reflects the light (reflecting telescope).

b.     Periscopes use flat mirrors to reflect light to change its path.

c.      Magnifying glasses use convex lenses to refract light so that objects appear larger. 

7.     Some human eyes do not focus light properly onto the retina.  Eyeglasses are lenses that improve vision by changing the path of light (refracting it) so it forms an image on the retina.

8.     Cameras have parts that function similarly to the human eye:

 

HUMAN EYE

CAMERA

FUNCTION

Eyelid

Lens cap

Protect interior parts

Pupil

Lens opening (aperture)

Control amount of light entering

 

Cornea, lens

Lens

Focus light rays on a point

Retina

Film (or digital medium)

Respond to light resulting in an image

 

 

KEY SCIENCE VOCABULARY:  optical tool, hand lens, magnifying glass, telescope, periscope, lens, mirror, concave, convex, reflect, refract, focus, camera and eye parts (see chart above)


Inquiry Lesson 5.1.1                         Properties of Light

                     Concepts      

Performance Expectation

Energy
Transfer and Transformations -What is the role of energy in our world?

5.1 – Light is a form of energy.

u Light is a form of energy that travels in a straight line and can be reflected by a mirror, refracted by a lens, or absorbed by objects.

B19  Describe how light is absorbed and reflected

         by different surfaces

 

Structure and Function -How are organisms structured to ensure efficiency and survival?

5.4 - Perceiving and responding to information about the environment is critical to the survival of organisms.

u The sense organs perceive stimuli from the environment and send signals to the brain through the nervous system.

B20  Describe how light absorption and reflection

         allow one to see the shapes and colors of

         objects. 


Science Materials: 

 

            Per Group      

·      Flashlight

·      Objects: Transparent, Translucent, and Opaque (wax paper,  plastic wrap, toys, e.g., stuffed animal)

 

Student Handouts:   Information on Types of Wavelengths (A), Anatomy of a Wavelength (B), Shining Light at Various Objects (C) and Diagramming the Path of Wavelengths (D).

Vocabulary:  reflect, absorb, refract, transparent, translucent, opaque, angle

Inquiry:  In this inquiry, students will explore various objects to determine whether they are transparent, translucent, or opaque.

 

Procedures and Directions:

1.     Pairs of students will use a flashlight to determine whether their objects are transparent, translucent or opaque.

2.     Students will record their observations.

3.     Complete diagram worksheet.

 


Questions to Guide Student Inquiry:

 

 

Science Concepts:  Light is characterized by length and amplitude.  Light is composed of more then one wavelengths causing them to occur at different frequency.  The frequency of a wavelength relates to the energy associated with it.   An object/material can be classified by whether or not, none, some, or all of the wavelengths hitting it can pass through it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This lesson was adapted from Optics: Energy and Control – Transparency of Objects Subtask 2 at My Science Site http://camillasenior.homestead.com/files/integrated_optics_unit.pdf

Last accessed July 14, 2007.

 


Background for the Teacher:

 

Property 1:  Light travels in all directions

 

Property 2:  Light travels in straight lines from its source.

·      Light does not curve or bend around an object. 

 

Property 3: Light travels in waves

 

·      Light travels in waves which are characterized by having a length.

·      Another characteristic is amplitude, whose extremes are identified as the crest and trough.

 

Property 4:  Light waves can differ in frequency

 

·      Frequency is simply “how often the same things happen.”

·      The more frequently a wave occurs in a fixed period of time, the stronger it is and the more energy it has (right to left on Handout A).  Conversely, less frequent the occurrence, the weaker the wave and the less energy it.

       

Property 5: Visible light is only one form of radiant energy

 

·      Our eyes can perceive wavelengths in the visible spectrum.

·      Wavelengths in the visible spectrum relate to color perception.

·      Receptors in our eyes are stimulated by these particular wavelengths because of their frequency.

·      Most of the wavelengths are too weak to stimulate the eyes receptors or too strong and can damage the eyes receptors. 

 

Types of Objects/Materials:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Identify

Object

Prediction*

Observation**

Conclusion***

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*Do you predict the object is opaque, transparent, or translucent?

**Did some, all or none of the light waves pass through the object?  

*** Was your prediction supported? What is your evidence?

 

Handout C


The arrows represent wavelengths that hit your object.  Each of these wavelengths are a different frequency then the others.  Diagram what happened to the wavelengths as they hit the different objects. 

 

 

 

Handout D

 


Inquiry Lesson 5.1.2/5.4.1                Comparing an Eye to a Camera

 

                     Concepts      

Performance Expectation

Structure and Function -How are organisms structured to ensure efficiency and survival?

5.2 - Perceiving and responding to information about the environment is critical to the survival of organisms.

u The sense organs perceive stimuli from the environment and send signals to the brain through the nervous system.

B21  Describe the structure and function of the

         human senses and signals they perceive.

Science and Technology
in Society - How do science and technology affect the quality of our lives?

5.4 – Humans have the capacity to build and use tools to advance the quality of their lives.

u Advances in technology allow individuals to acquire new information about the world.

B25 Describe the uses of different instruments to

        enhance our vision.


Science Materials: 

            Per Group      

§       SLR Film Camera (if possible)

§       Another option is than a disposable camera can be dissected to observe the camera functions mentioned in this lab.  A Google search for “disposable camera dissection” will supply “how-to…” instructions. 

CAUTION: Disposable cameras have a capacitor that can give a person a severe shock.  Refer to instructions to short the capacitor.

 

Student Handouts:   Photograph Variations (A)

Vocabulary:  eyelid, pupil, cornea, lens, retina, lens cap, aperture, lens, film, reflect, illuminate

Inquiry:  In this inquiry, students will explore the similarities between specific components of the human eye and a camera.

Procedures and Directions: Students will explore the function and structure of a camera.

(Note: If neither, a SLR or disposable camera are available then the students can observe the mechanics of a camera on the internet.

      Search using keywords: camera aperture shutter at http://video.google.com/ or www.youube.com)

 

These next 2 sites were accessed last on 7/28/07

      camera aperture  http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-2036885031899311434

      camera shutter http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=2212113659283420446

 

Note: If internet access is not available, the teacher can print an image obtained from a Google image search.)

 


Questions to Guide Student Inquiry:

 

Science Concepts:  The camera and the eye have shared characteristics that enable them to focus incoming light into an image.  Both have the capability to make fine adjustment to compensate for changes in availability of light.

 

Background for the Teacher:

The individual components of the human eye work in a manner similar to that of a camera. The camera, in comparison, is a device that consists of a light-proof chamber with an aperture fitted with a lens and a shutter through which an image of an object is projected onto a surface for recording. Both the iris and the pupil in the human eye, and the aperture and the shutter in the camera, play vital roles in helping to produce clearer images. 

Useful Websites

How does the Human eye work?

http://www.pasadenaeye.com/faq/faq15/faq15_text.html

 

Eye Evolution

http://library.thinkquest.org/28030/eyeevo.htm

 

Parts of this lesson were adapted from “Lights, Camera, Action!” at Institute of Atmospheric Sciences. http://www.ias.sdsmt.edu/RSEL/Outreach/ESC/ESC_CD/LESSONS/LIGHTS_CAMERA_ACTION/LESSON_PLAN.HTM  Last accessed July 16, 2007.

 

Parts of this lesson were adapted from “Can You See What I See” at National Teachers Enhancement Network

http://www.scienceteacher.org/k12resources/lessons/lesson10.htm  Last accessed July 16, 2007.

 Handout A


Inquiry Lesson 5.1.3/5.4.2                Lenses

                     Concepts      

Performance Expectation

Energy
Transfer and Transformations -What is the role of energy in our world?

5.1 – Light is a form of energy.

u Light is a form of energy that travels in a straight line and can be reflected by a mirror, refracted by a lens, or absorbed by objects.

B19  Describe how light is absorbed and reflected  by different surfaces

 

Science and Technology
in Society - How do science and technology affect the quality of our lives?

5.4 – Humans have the capacity to build and use tools to advance the quality of their lives.

u Advances in technology allow individuals to acquire new information about the world.

B25 Describe the uses of different instruments to enhance our vision.


Science Materials:    

 

Student Handouts:  Working with lenses (A, B and C)

Vocabulary:  optical tool, magnifying glass, lens, mirror, concave, convex, reflect, refract, focus, sense reflect, absorb, refract, transparent, translucent, opaque, angle

Inquiry:  In this inquiry, students will explore how types of lenses affect the direction that light travels and how the use of these lenses in an instrument can enhance our vision.

 

Procedures and Directions:

1.  Groups of 4 students complete Handout A, B and C using the lens set.

 

Questions to Guide Student Inquiry:

 

 

Science Concepts:  Light travels in a straight line.  Lenses can be used in a device to refract reflected light.  A lens or combination of lenses can be used to enhance vision.

This lesson were adapted from “Concave/Convex Lenses” by Rick Mazey at LessonPlansPage.com  http://www.lessonplanspage.com/ScienceConvexConcaveLenses69.htm

and “Optics: Energy and Control” at http://camillasenior.homestead.com/files/integrated_optics_unit.pdf

Both were last accessed July 21, 2007.

 

Background for the Teacher:

 

Optical devices have been developed to perform functions that the eye is not normally capable of performing.  These devices, in general, change the way objects are viewed “by the naked eye” by relying on characteristics of different types of lenses.
            Convex- A lens which is thicker in the middle than on the ends.
            Concave- A lens which is thinner in the middle than on the ends.
            Way to remember the difference: A concave lens looks like the opening to a cave,    therefore you can remember that it curves inward.

 

A lens is used to refract light that is passing through it.  Refraction is the bending of light as it moves from one substance to another.  Convex lenses refract parallel light rays so they come together at a single point.  This is known as convergence.  This point of convergence is known as the focal point.  The distance from center of lens to focal point = focal length.  The thicker the middle of the lens becomes, the shorter the focal length.  Concave lenses refract the rays so they come apart. . This is known as divergence.

 

Lenses use in the following devices:

·      Cameras (normally convex)

·      glasses (near= concave; far = convex)

·      telescopes (at least 2 convex)

·      microscopes (at least 2 convex).


 

 

 

 

Handout A


How will light refract?

 
 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Handout B

How will light refract?

 
 


 

 

 

Handout C


Inquiry Lesson 5.1.4/5.4.3                Pinhole Camera

                     Concepts      

Performance Expectation

Energy
Transfer and Transformations -What is the role of energy in our world?

5.1 – Light is a form of energy.

u Light is a form of energy that travels in a straight line and can be reflected by a mirror, refracted by a lens, or absorbed by objects.

B19  Describe how light is absorbed and reflected

         by different surfaces

 

Structure and Function -How are organisms structured to ensure efficiency and survival?

5.2 - Perceiving and responding to information about the environment is critical to the survival of organisms.

u The sense organs perceive stimuli from the environment and send signals to the brain through the nervous system.

B20  Describe how light absorption and reflection

         allow one to see the shapes and colors of

         objects.

B21  Describe the structure and function of the

         human senses and signals they perceive.

 

Science and Technology
in Society - How do science and technology affect the quality of our lives?

5.4 – Humans have the capacity to build and use tools to advance the quality of their lives.

u Advances in technology allow individuals to acquire new information about the world.

B24 Compare and contrast the structures of the

        human eye with those of a camera.

B25 Describe the uses of different instruments to

        enhance our vision.


Science Materials:    

 

Student Handouts:  Pinhole Camera Diagram (A)

Vocabulary:  reflect, absorb, opaque, angle, optical tool, lens, focus, camera

Inquiry:  In this inquiry, students will explore how light can be focused to form an image or picture.

 

 


Procedures and Directions:

1.  Cut two pieces of poster board about 12 inches square.

2.   Make a small, clean hole in the center of one of the poster boards you cut with a push pin.

     (Make sure the hole is very small and very sharp.)   In the other piece of poster board make a hole the size of the circumference of a darning needle.

3.   In a darkened room, ask one student to hold the poster board with the pinhole 5 – 10 feet away from an object that is lighted by the lamp between.

4.  Ask another student to hold the waxed paper about an arm's length away from the poster board. Explain that the waxed paper serves as a screen, and that an image focused by the pinhole will appear on that screen upside down.

5.   Repeat the above steps using the poster board with the larger hole.  It is best at this point to run both demonstrations for the students to compare the two images.  The image should become brighter and more blurred due to overlapping light rays. If the hole gets too large, mask it with tape and start again.

 

Questions to Guide Student Inquiry:

 

 

Science Concepts:  Light travels in a straight line.  The lens of an eye can focus the incoming reflected light to form an image on the eye’s retina.

 

This lesson were adapted from “Classroom Exercise: Pinhole Focusing” at American Optometric Association. http://www.aoa.org/x6044.xml  Last accessed July 17, 2007.

 

Background for the Teacher:

 

Light travels in straight lines so the light path from the top of the object goes through the lens to

the bottom of the image.  Light from the bottom of the object goes to the top of the image.  This

is why the image appears upside down and also the change in orientation from left to right.  The

image is turned around in the brain and we “see” it right side up.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                        Modified from its original source:  http://www.funsci.com/fun3_en/lens/lens_05.gif

            Last accessed August 18, 2007

Figure 1


Application Problems

Module 5.1 and 5.4 Light

 

These assessment items are intended to provide closure for each lesson and help teachers determine how well the students understand the science concepts. The assessments are also intended to provide students additional practice with the lesson content. Teachers should use the assessment items as they deem appropriate. For example, teachers may wish to assign them for homework, assign them as an additional class activity or “quiz” at the end of a lesson, or ask students to answer them individually as they leave the class (as “exit passes”). Teachers may wish to use the problems as a closing class activity, asking students to solve the problem in groups and then share their answers in a whole group closing activity.

 

1. Which of the following objects is translucent?

a)     a book

b)    a rock

c)     a piece of  paper

d)    a piece of plastic wrap

 

 

 

2. Make a list of the objects in your classroom. Categorize them as opaque, translucent, or transparent.

 

 

 

 

3. A shadow is cast when the sunlight is blocked. Which of the following would cast the darkest shadow?

a)     a tree

b)    a plastic sandwich bag

c)     a glass

d)    a flower petal

 

 

4. Is a mirror a transparent, translucent, or opaque object? Explain how you know this.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. How is an eye like a camera?

 

 


6. What happens to light when it hits a mirror?

            a) The light is reflected.

            b) The light is absorbed

            c) The light is emitted

            d) The light travels around the mirror

 

 

7. Explain how eyeglasses and contact lenses help people to see more clearly.

 

 

 

 

 

 

8. Your friend claims to know a magic trick. He puts a pencil in a glass of water and it looks bent. Then, he pulls it out and it looks straight again. How would you explain this magic trick? Use at least one scientific term in your response.

 

 

 

 

 

 

9. In addition to eyeglasses or contact lenses, name two tools that use lenses to help people see better.  Choose one of these tools and explain how it works.