Students delight in exploring the world they live in. They naturally observe the properties of the objects in order to make sense of them. This unit provides students with skills and concepts that will assist in this natural discovery. Students will learn that having an understanding of what constitutes a liquid, solid or a gas, is a valuable skill for organizing and classifying physical things.
SCIENCE STANDARDS AND INDICATORS
Conceptual Theme; Properties of Matter- How does the structure of matter affect the properties and uses of materials?
Content Standard 2.1- Materials can be classified as solid, liquid or gas based on their observable properties.
Core Science Inquiry Expected Performance
A INQ1- Make observation and ask questions about objects, organisms and the environment.
A INQ.2 - Use senses and simple measuring tools to collect data
A INQ.6 - Present information in words and drawings
A INQ.9 - Count order and sort objects by their properties.
CMT Expected Performances
A.18- Describe the differences in the physical properties of solids and liquids.
Grade Level Concept: Solids tend to maintain their own shapes, while liquids tend to assume the shapes of their containers, and gases fill their containers fully.
∑ All materials (matter) take up space. Matter can be classified by whether it is in solid, liquid or gas form. Each state of matter has unique properties.
∑ Solids are the only state of matter that keeps their own shape. A solidís shape can only be changed if a force is applied to it, such as hammering, slicing or twisting. Solids can be hard, soft, bouncy or stretchy.
∑ Solids take up a certain amount of space (volume); the volume does not change if the solid is placed in different containers.
∑ Liquids do not have their own shape; they go to the bottom of a container and take on the shape of the part of the container they occupy. Liquids pour and flow from a higher point to a lower point; some liquids flow faster than others.
∑ Liquids have a definite volume. When a liquid is poured into different containers, the shape of the liquid may change, but the volume does not.
∑ Gases do not have a definite shape; they take on the shape of whatever container they occupy. For example, the air in an inflated balloon can be squeezed and reshaped.
∑ Gases do not have a definite volume; they spread out in all directions to fill any size container, or they keep spreading in all directions if there is no container. For example, blowing even a small amount of air into a balloon immediately fills the entire balloon; the smell of baking bread eventually fills the entire house and even outside.
KEY SCIENCE VOCABULARY: property, classify, matter, state of matter, solid, liquid, gas, volume
SCIENCE CONTENT STANDARD 2.1
Properties of Matter - How does the structure of matter affect the properties and uses of materials?
2.1 – Materials can be classified as solid, liquid or gas based on their observable properties.
GRADE-LEVEL CONCEPT: u Solids tend to maintain their own shapes, while liquids tend to assume the shapes of their containers, and gases fill their containers fully.
KEY SCIENCE VOCABULARY: property, classify, matter, state of matter, solid, liquid, gas, volume
CMT EXPECTED PERFORMANCES
A18 Describe differences in the physical properties of solids and liquids.
SCIENCE INQUIRY: Scientific inquiry is a thoughtful and coordinated attempt to search out describe, explain and predict natural phenomena.
SCIENCE LITERACY: Science literacy includes speaking listening, presenting, interpreting, reading and writing about science.
SCIENCE NUMERACY: Mathematics provides useful tool for the description, analysis and presentation of scientific data and ideas.
Solids tend to maintain their own shapes, while liquids tend to assume the shapes of their containers, and gases fill their containers fully.
ALIGNMENT TO OTHER STANDARDS
Science is an opportunity for students to use literary and math skills. They will explore, discover the world around them and use math skills to sort and quantify what they see. They will then develop their thinking by communicating what they notice, by writing, talking and describing what they understand. Science would not be possible without language arts and math skills. Providing students with the chance to develop inquiry skills is perfect for developing and applying skills in other content areas.
1.1a1 - Describe and classify data and objects based on more that one attribute.
1.1a2 - Use patterns and the rules that describe them, to identify a missing object, objects with common or different attributes and the complement of a set of objects.
1.1a3 - Explore a variety of ways to describe and write rules for patterns.
∑ Solids have a definite shape. The shape of a solid can be changed by applying a force (for example, hammering, cutting, squeezing).
∑ Solids take up a certain amount of space (volume); the volume does not depend on the size or shape of the container.
∑ Some solids bend easily (for example, paper or latex), while others do not (for example, steel or wood.)
∑ Some solids are made up of small particles that can be poured (for example, powders, salt or breakfast cereals).
∑ Liquids have no definite shape. They take on the shape of the part of the container they occupy. Liquids pour and flow.
∑ Liquids have a definite volume the amount of liquid does not vary when it is poured into a different container.
∑ Liquids flow from a higher point to a lower point; some liquids flow faster than others. The rate at which liquids flow depends on the thickness of the liquid (viscosity) or the steepness of the slope.
∑ Gases have no definite shape. They take on the shape of the whole container they occupy.
∑ Gases have no definite volume. They spread out in all directions to fill any size container.
∑ Solids and liquids can be described by their properties
∑ Some properties of solids are colors, shape, ability to roll or stack, hardness, magnetic attraction, and whether they float or sink.
∑ Some properties of liquids are color, tendency to flow, degree of viscosity or fluidity, whether they are miscible with water, whether they float or sink in water
∑ Test can be performed to investigate properties of solids and liquids that cannot otherwise be observed.
SKILLS: Students will be able to do:
∑ Observing and describing the properties of solid and liquids.
∑ Conducting tests to investigate the properties of solids and liquids.
∑ Sorting solid into groups on the basis of their properties.
∑ Comparing similarities and differences among solids.
∑ Comparing similarities and difference among liquids.
∑ Applying tests to investigate new solids and liquids
∑ Compare the properties of solids with the properties of liquids
∑ Communicating ideas, observations and experiences through witting drawing, and discussion
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS TO GUIDE INSTRUCTION AND ASSESSMENT:
∑ What are the properties of liquid?
∑ What are the properties of a solid?
∑ What are the properties of liquids, solids, and gas?
∑ How do the properties help determine the usage?
MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES
OBJECTIVES AND GOALS
Observing and Describing Two Solids
Comparing Solids That Roll with Solids That Stack
Testing the Hardness of Solids
Investigation Solids in Water
Testing Solids with a Magnet
Guess My Reason
Investigation Two Solids
Observing and Describing Two Liquids
Investigating Two New Liquids
Comparing Solids and Liquids
This post-unit assessment is matched to the pre-unit assessments in Lesson 1 (solids) and Lesson 10 (liquids), when students developed the charts entitled "Comparing the Spoon and the Ball" and "Comparing Water and Glue," respectively. When students revisit these charts during this activity, you will have an opportunity to assess what they have learned about investigating solids and liquids. Students will also have a chance to see how much they have learned. Students' science journal entries are another source of information you may use in assessing the growth in their knowledge of solids and liquids.
By the end of the post-unit assessment, you will have compiled information from the notes you took during the discussions, students' comments on the charts and students' journal entries to use in assessing students' knowledge about solids and liquids. Many teachers have commented that by the end of the unit, their students' knowledge of specific properties of solids and liquids increased; their vocabulary broadened; and their communication and writing skills become more sophisticated. Teachers have noted that the students also developed skills in observing, sorting, and identifying solids and liquids and that many students felt confident about their abilities to conduct tests and use data in the same way that scientists do. These comments are provided here as examples of the range of abilities, skills. and knowledge that you might expect from your students.
FOR EACH STUDENT
1 science journal
FOR THE CLASS
2 sheets of newsprint
"Properties of Solids" chart (from Lessons 2-8)
"Properties of Liquids" chart (from Lessons 11-14)
"Comparing the Spoon and the Ball" chart (from Lesson 1)
"Comparing Water and Glue" chart (from Lesson 10)
1. On one sheet of newsprint, write the title "Comparing the Spoon and the Ball." Beneath
the title, create two columns and label them "Different" and "Alike." Write the current
date on the chart.
2. On another sheet of newsprint, write the title "Comparing Water and Glue." Beneath the
title, create two columns label them "Different." and "Alike." Write the current date on the
3. Make sure the "Properties of Solids" and "Properties of Liquids" charts are displayed.
4. Have the class charts from Lessons 1 and 10 ready, but do not post them until Steps 8
and 11, respectively, of the Procedure.
Note: This activity invites students to review what they have learned about the steel ball, blue plastic spoon, water, and glue. It is not essential for students to have these materials in front of them. If you decide to provide the materials to students, make sure to prepare the distribution center in advance. Refer to the Materials lists in Lessons 1 and 10 to determine what materials are needed. Also, because the post-unit assessment activities require students to engage mostly in writing and discussion, you may want to break the activities into two lessons. If you do so, you could conduct Steps 8 through 12 of the Procedure at another time.
1. Have students take out their science journals. Ask them to turn to a new page and to write the current date on top of the page.
2. Note: You may want to prepare today's science entry in advance. If so, write the statements in Steps 2 and 4 of the Procedure on one copy of the black line master of a sample journal- entry sheet (in Appendix A) and make a copy for each student.
3. Write the following statements on the board and ask the students to copy the statements in their science journals and to complete the sentence.
4. I know that the ball is a solid because_________________________.
5. I know that the glue is a liquid because _____________________________.
6. Then, ask students 'to write on the same page in their journals two or more things that they learned about solids and liquids during the unit.
7. Have students turn to the pages in their science journals on which they first recorded their ideas about the ball and the glue (Lessons 1 and 10, respectively). Encourage students to compare those comments with the ones they have just written. During this discussion, highlight differences in students' comments that reflect what they have learned as a result of their investigations during the unit.
8. Note: During the discussion, you may want to make note of comments of individual students that reflect the growth in their knowledge about solids and liquids. These notes can provide important information to use in student assessment.
9. Display the "Comparing the Spoon and the Ball" chart that you prepared for this assessment. Ask students to describe how these two solids are alike and different. Encourage students to refer to the "Properties of Solids" chart to remind them of the properties of these two solids that they investigated in Lessons 2 through 7. Record their comments on the chart in the appropriate columns.
10. Now display the "Comparing the Spoon and the Ball" chart from Lesson 1. Ask students to compare the comments on the two charts. Then, ask them to look at the new chart and identify any observations that do not appear on the first one. Encourage students to describe what they have learned about the two solids since Lesson 1.
11. Display the "Comparing Water and Glue" chart that you prepared for this lesson. Ask students to describe how these two liquids are alike and different. Encourage students to refer to the "Properties of Liquids" chart to remind them of the properties of these two liquids that they investigated in Lessons 10 through 14. Record their comments on the chart in the appropriate columns.
12. Now display the chart from Lesson 10. Ask students to compare the comments written on the two charts. Ask them to look at the new chart and identify any observations that do not appear on the first one. Encourage students to describe what they have learned about the two liquids since Lesson 10.
13. Collect the students' science journals. Compare their observations from the post-unit assessment with those from Lessons 1 and 10. As you compare the entries, note the following:
Solids, Liquids and Gases; Ray Boudreau
What Is the World Made Of? (Let's-Read-and-Find-Out Science, Stage 2) (Paperback)
Solids, Liquids, and Gases by Ballard, Carol
From Cow to Ice Cream; Bertram T. Knight, Bertram T. Knight
Where Do Snowmen Go when They Melt?; Hank Bruce,
States of Matter; Carol Baldwin
Oil Spill; Melvin Berger
The Snowman; Raymond Briggs
What Am I?; N. N. Charles
The Magic School Bus at the Waterworks; Joanna Coles
Bouncing and Rolling; Terry Jennings
The Snowy Day; Ezra Keats
Hammers and Mops; True Kelley
The Great Blueness and Other Predicaments; Arnold Lobel
Prince William; Gloria Rand
Sylvester and the Magic Peble; William Steig
I Don't Want to Melt!; Alma Florada,
Extension Act ivies
Make Ice scream
Maple Syrup in the making
Links to United Streaming
For this unit, go to http://www.unitedstreaming.com
Search strand: Solids and liquids
Grade Level (left): K-2