Science

Second Grade

Unit 1

Solid, Liquid & Gas

INTRODUCTION

Students delight in exploring the world they live in. They naturally observe the properties of the objects in order to make sense of them.  This unit provides students with skills and concepts that will assist in this natural discovery.  Students will learn that having an understanding of what constitutes a liquid, solid or a gas, is a valuable skill for organizing and classifying physical things. 

 

 

SCIENCE STANDARDS AND INDICATORS

Conceptual Theme; Properties of Matter- How does the structure of matter affect the properties and uses of materials?

Content Standard 2.1- Materials can be classified as solid, liquid or gas based on their observable properties.

 

Core Science Inquiry Expected Performance

A INQ1- Make observation and ask questions about objects, organisms and the environment.

A INQ.2 - Use senses and simple measuring tools to collect data

A INQ.6 - Present information in words and drawings

A INQ.9 - Count order and sort objects by their properties.

 

CMT Expected Performances

A.18- Describe the differences in the physical properties of solids and liquids.

Grade Level Concept: Solids tend to maintain their own shapes, while liquids tend to assume the shapes of their containers, and gases fill their containers fully.

GRADE-LEVEL EXPECTATIONS:

       All materials (matter) take up space.  Matter can be classified by whether it is in solid, liquid or gas form.  Each state of matter has unique properties.

       Solids are the only state of matter that keeps their own shape.  A solidís shape can only be changed if a force is applied to it, such as hammering, slicing or twisting.  Solids can be hard, soft, bouncy or stretchy.

       Solids take up a certain amount of space (volume); the volume does not change if the solid is placed in different containers.

       Liquids do not have their own shape; they go to the bottom of a container and take on the shape of the part of the container they occupy.  Liquids pour and flow from a higher point to a lower point; some liquids flow faster than others.

       Liquids have a definite volume.  When a liquid is poured into different containers, the shape of the liquid may change, but the volume does not.

       Gases do not have a definite shape; they take on the shape of whatever container they occupy. For example, the air in an inflated balloon can be squeezed and reshaped. 

       Gases do not have a definite volume; they spread out in all directions to fill any size container, or they keep spreading in all directions if there is no container.  For example, blowing even a small amount of air into a balloon immediately fills the entire balloon; the smell of baking bread eventually fills the entire house and even outside.

 

KEY SCIENCE VOCABULARY:  property, classify, matter, state of matter, solid, liquid, gas, volume

 


 

SCIENCE CONTENT STANDARD 2.1

CONCEPTUAL THEME:

Properties of Matter - How does the structure of matter affect the properties and uses of materials?

 

CONTENT STANDARD:

2.1 – Materials can be classified as solid, liquid or gas based on their observable properties.

 

 

GRADE-LEVEL CONCEPT: u Solids tend to maintain their own shapes, while liquids tend to assume the shapes of their containers, and gases fill their containers fully.

GRADE-LEVEL EXPECTATIONS:

  1. All materials (matter) take up space.  Matter can be classified by whether it is in solid, liquid or gas form.  Each state of matter has unique properties.
  2. Solids are the only state of matter that keep their own shape.  A solidís shape can only be changed if a force is applied to it, such as hammering, slicing or twisting.  Solids can be hard, soft, bouncy or stretchy.
  3. Solids take up a certain amount of space (volume); the volume does not change if the solid is placed in different containers.
  4. Liquids do not have their own shape; they go to the bottom of a container and take on the shape of the part of the container they occupy.  Liquids pour and flow from a higher point to a lower point; some liquids flow faster than others.
  5. Liquids have a definite volume.  When a liquid is poured into different containers, the shape of the liquid may change, but the volume does not.
  6. Gases do not have a definite shape; they take on the shape of whatever container they occupy. For example, the air in an inflated balloon can be squeezed and reshaped. 
  7. Gases do not have a definite volume; they spread out in all directions to fill any size container, or they keep spreading in all directions if there is no container.  For example, blowing even a small amount of air into a balloon immediately fills the entire balloon; the smell of baking bread eventually fills the entire house and even outside.

 

KEY SCIENCE VOCABULARY:  property, classify, matter, state of matter, solid, liquid, gas, volume

CMT EXPECTED PERFORMANCES

 

A18 Describe differences in the physical properties of solids and liquids.

 


SCIENCE INQUIRY: Scientific inquiry is a thoughtful and coordinated attempt to search out describe, explain and predict natural phenomena.

 

SCIENCE LITERACY: Science literacy includes speaking listening, presenting, interpreting, reading and writing about science.

 

SCIENCE NUMERACY: Mathematics provides useful tool for the description, analysis and presentation of scientific data and ideas.

 

BIG IDEA

Solids tend to maintain their own shapes, while liquids tend to assume the shapes of their containers, and gases fill their containers fully.

 

ALIGNMENT TO OTHER STANDARDS

Science is an opportunity for students to use literary and math skills. They will explore, discover the world around them and use math skills to sort and quantify what they see. They will then develop their thinking by communicating what they notice, by writing, talking and describing what they understand.  Science would not be possible without language arts and math skills. Providing students with the chance to develop inquiry skills is perfect for developing and applying skills in other content areas.

 

 

 

MATH

1.1a1 - Describe and classify data and objects based on more that one attribute.

1.1a2 - Use patterns and the rules that describe them, to identify a missing object, objects with common or different attributes and the complement of a set of objects.

1.1a3 - Explore a variety of ways to describe and write rules for patterns.

 

ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE:

       Solids have a definite shape. The shape of a solid can be changed by applying a force (for example, hammering, cutting, squeezing).

       Solids take up a certain amount of space (volume); the volume does not depend on the size or shape of the container.

       Some solids bend easily (for example, paper or latex), while others do not (for example, steel or wood.)

       Some solids are made up of small particles that can be poured (for example, powders, salt or breakfast cereals).

       Liquids have no definite shape. They take on the shape of the part of the container they occupy. Liquids pour and flow.

       Liquids have a definite volume the amount of liquid does not vary when it is poured into a different container.

       Liquids flow from a higher point to a lower point; some liquids flow faster than others. The rate at which liquids flow depends on the thickness of the liquid (viscosity) or the steepness of the slope.

       Gases have no definite shape. They take on the shape of the whole container they occupy.

       Gases have no definite volume. They spread out in all directions to fill any size container.

 

CONCEPTS

       Solids and liquids can be described by their properties

       Some properties of solids are colors, shape, ability to roll or stack, hardness, magnetic attraction, and whether they float or sink.

       Some properties of liquids are color, tendency to flow, degree of viscosity or  fluidity, whether they are miscible with water, whether they  float or sink in water

       Test can be performed to investigate properties of solids and liquids that cannot otherwise be observed.

 

SKILLS: Students will be able to do:

       Observing and describing the properties of solid and liquids.

       Conducting tests to investigate the properties of solids and liquids.

       Sorting solid into groups on the basis of their properties.

       Comparing similarities and differences among solids.

       Comparing similarities and difference among liquids.

       Applying tests to investigate new solids and liquids

       Compare the properties of solids with the properties of liquids

       Communicating ideas, observations and experiences through witting drawing, and discussion

 

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS TO GUIDE INSTRUCTION AND ASSESSMENT:

        

       What are the properties of liquid?

       What are the properties of a solid?

       What are the properties of liquids, solids, and gas?

       How do the properties help determine the usage?

 

MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES

 

OBJECTIVES AND GOALS

LESSON ONE

Observing and Describing Two Solids

 

LESSON TWO

Observing Properties

 

 

 

LESSON THREE

Comparing Solids That Roll with Solids That Stack

 

LESSON FOUR

Rolling Solids

 

LESSON FIVE

Testing the Hardness of Solids

 

LESSON SIX

Investigation Solids in Water

 

LESSONS SEVEN

Testing Solids with a Magnet

 

LESSON EIGHT

Guess My Reason

 

LESSON NINE

Investigation Two Solids

 

LESSON TEN

Observing and Describing Two Liquids

 

LESSON ELEVEN

Investigating Liquids

 

LESSON TWELVE

Flowing Liquids

 

LESSON THIRTEEN

Drop Races

 

LESSON FOURTEEN

Mixing Liquids

 

LESSON FIFTEEN

Investigating Two New Liquids

 

 

LESSON SIXTEEN

Comparing Solids and Liquids

 

 

Significant Task

 

Post-Unit Assessment\

Overview

This post-unit assessment is matched to the pre-unit assessments in Lesson 1 (solids) and Lesson 10 (liquids), when students developed the charts entitled "Comparing the Spoon and the Ball" and "Comparing Water and Glue," respectively. When students revisit these charts during this activity, you will have an opportunity to assess what they have learned about investigating solids and liquids. Students will also have a chance to see how much they have learned. Students' science journal entries are another source of information you may use in assessing the growth in their knowledge of solids and liquids.

By the end of the post-unit assessment, you will have compiled information from the notes you took during the discussions, students' comments on the charts and students' journal entries to use in assessing students' knowledge about solids and liquids.  Many teachers have commented that by the end of the unit, their students' knowledge of specific properties of solids and liquids increased; their vocabulary broadened; and their communication and writing skills become more sophisticated. Teachers have noted that the students also developed skills in observing, sorting, and identifying solids and liquids and that many students felt confident about their abilities to conduct tests and use data in the same way that scientists do. These comments are provided here as examples of the range of abilities, skills. and knowledge that you might expect from your students.

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Materials

FOR EACH STUDENT

1 science journal

1 pencil

 

FOR THE CLASS

 2 sheets of newsprint

 1 marker 

 "Properties of Solids" chart (from Lessons 2-8)

 "Properties of Liquids" chart (from Lessons 11-14)

 "Comparing the Spoon and the Ball" chart (from Lesson 1)

 "Comparing Water and Glue" chart (from Lesson 10)

 

Preparation

1. On one sheet of newsprint, write the title "Comparing the Spoon and the Ball."  Beneath

    the title, create two columns and label them "Different" and "Alike." Write the current

    date on the chart.

2. On another sheet of newsprint, write the title "Comparing Water and Glue." Beneath the

    title, create two columns label them "Different." and "Alike." Write the current date on the

    chart.

3. Make sure the "Properties of Solids" and "Properties of Liquids" charts are displayed.

4. Have the class charts from Lessons 1 and 10 ready, but do not post them until Steps 8

    and 11, respectively, of the Procedure.

 

 Note: This activity invites students to review what they have learned about the steel ball, blue plastic spoon, water, and glue. It is not essential for students to have these materials in front of them. If you decide to provide the materials to students, make sure to prepare the distribution center in advance. Refer to the Materials lists in Lessons 1 and 10 to determine what materials are needed. Also, because the post-unit assessment activities require students to engage mostly in writing and discussion, you may want to break the activities into two lessons. If you do so, you could conduct Steps 8 through 12 of the Procedure at another time.

 

Procedure

1.     Have students take out their science journals. Ask them to turn to a new page and to write the current date on top of the page.

2.     Note: You may want to prepare today's science entry in advance. If so, write the statements in Steps 2 and 4 of the Procedure on one copy of the black line master of a sample journal- entry sheet (in Appendix A) and make a copy for each student.

3.     Write the following statements on the board and ask the students to copy the statements in their science journals and to complete the sentence.

4.     I know that the ball is a solid because_________________________.

5.     I know that the glue is a liquid because _____________________________.

6.     Then, ask students 'to write on the same page in their journals two or more things that they learned about solids and liquids during the unit.

7.     Have students turn to the pages in their science journals on which they first recorded their ideas about the ball and the glue (Lessons 1 and 10, respectively). Encourage students to compare those comments with the ones they have just written. During this discussion, highlight differences in students' comments that reflect what they have learned as a result of their investigations during the unit.

8.     Note: During the discussion, you may want to make note of comments of individual students that reflect the growth in their knowledge about solids and liquids. These notes can provide important information to use in student assessment.

 

9.     Display the "Comparing the Spoon and the Ball" chart that you prepared for this assessment. Ask students to describe how these two solids are alike and different. Encourage students to refer to the "Properties of Solids" chart to remind them of the properties of these two solids that they investigated in Lessons 2 through 7. Record their comments on the chart in the appropriate columns.

10.   Now display the "Comparing the Spoon and the Ball" chart from Lesson 1. Ask students to compare the comments on the two charts. Then, ask them to look at the new chart and identify any observations that do not appear on the first one. Encourage students to describe what they have learned about the two solids since Lesson 1.

11.   Display the "Comparing Water and Glue" chart that you prepared for this lesson. Ask students to describe how these two liquids are alike and different. Encourage students to refer to the "Properties of Liquids" chart to remind them of the properties of these two liquids that they investigated in Lessons 10 through 14. Record their comments on the chart in the appropriate columns.

12.   Now display the chart from Lesson 10. Ask students to compare the comments written on the two charts. Ask them to look at the new chart and identify any observations that do not appear on the first one. Encourage students to describe what they have learned about the two liquids since Lesson 10.

13.   Collect the students' science journals. Compare their observations from the post-unit assessment with those from Lessons 1 and 10. As you compare the entries, note the following:

 

 

 

RESOURCES

 

Web sites

 

http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/state.html

http://www.nyu.edu/pages/mathmol/textbook/statesofmatter.html

http://www.usoe.k12.ut.us/curr/science/sciber00/7th/matter/sciber/intro.htm

 

Literacy Books

Solids, Liquids and Gases; Ray Boudreau

What Is the World Made Of?  (Let's-Read-and-Find-Out Science, Stage 2) (Paperback)

Solids, Liquids, and Gases by Ballard, Carol

From Cow to Ice Cream;  Bertram T. Knight, Bertram T. Knightskip to next title

Why Are the Ice Caps Melting?; F. Rockwell, Paul Meisel skip to next title

Soap making: 50 Fun & Fabulous Soaps to Melt & Pour (Kid's Crafts Series) Joe Rhatiganskip to next title

Where Do Snowmen Go when They Melt?; Hank Bruce,  

States of Matter; Carol Baldwinskip to next title

Oil Spill; Melvin Berger

The Snowman; Raymond Briggs

What Am I?; N. N. Charles

The Magic School Bus at the Waterworks; Joanna Coles

Bouncing and Rolling; Terry Jennings

The Snowy Day; Ezra Keats

Hammers and Mops; True Kelley

The Great Blueness and Other Predicaments; Arnold Lobel

Prince William; Gloria Rand

Sylvester and the Magic Peble; William Steig

   

I Don't Want to Melt!;  Alma Florada,

 

Extension Act ivies

Make soap

Make Ice scream

 

Field trips

Maple Syrup in the making

Ice house

 

Links to United Streaming

For this unit, go to http://www.unitedstreaming.com

Search strand:  Solids and liquids

Grade Level (left): K-2