Science Grade 1
Sunshine and Shadows
Description: Students will use science inquiry skills to explore
sunlight and shadows. They will learn what they need to make shadows, how to
change and move shadows, and how shadows move outside as a result of the changing
relative position in the sky.
CT State Science
- 1.1 An object’s motion can be described by
tracing and measuring its position over time.
- A11. Describe the apparent movement of the sun
across the sky and the changes in the length and direction of the shadows
during the day.
- 1.1 Changes in the
sun’s position throughout the day can be measured by observing changes in
shadows outdoors. Shadows
occur when light is blocked by an object. An object’s shadow appears opposite the light
source. Shadow lengths depend
on the position of the light source.
SCIENCE CONTENT STANDARD 1.1
Forces and Motion -
What makes objects move the way they do?
1.1 – The sun
appears to move across the sky in the same way every day, but its path
changes gradually over the seasons.
1: u An object’s
position can be described by locating it relative to another object or the
An object’s position can be described by comparing it to the position of
another stationary object. One
object can be in front of, behind, next to, inside of, above or below another object.
The sun’s position in
the daytime sky can be described relative to stationary objects on Earth. For
example, the sun can be “just above the treetops,” “high or low in the sky,”
or “on the other side of the school.”
The description of an
object’s position from one
observer’s point of view may be different from that reported from a different
observer’s viewpoint. For
example, a box of crayons between two students is near Susan’s left hand but
near John’s right hand.
When an observer
changes position, different
words may be needed to describe an object’s position. For example, when I am sitting on the
bench the sun is “behind” me; when I move to the slide, the sun is “in front
The same object when
viewed from close up appears larger than it does when viewed from far
away (although the actual size of the object does not change.) For example, a beach ball held in
one’s arms appears larger than it does when viewed from across the
An object’s position can be described using words (“near the door”),
numbers (10 centimeters away from the door) or labeled diagrams.
2: u An object’s
motion can be described by tracing and measuring its position over time.
1. Things move in many ways, such as spinning, rolling, sliding, bouncing, flying
2. An object is in motion when its position is changing. Because the sun’s position changes
relative to objects on Earth throughout the day, it appears to be moving across the sky.
3. Changes in the sun’s position throughout the day can
be measured by observing changes in shadows outdoors. Shadows occur when light is blocked
by an object. An object’s shadow
appears opposite the light source.
Shadow lengths depend on the position of the light source..
VOCABULARY: position, motion, shadow, push, pull, force
CMT EXPECTED PERFORMANCES
Describe the apparent movement of the sun across the sky and the changes in
the length and direction of shadows during the day.
- You need a light source, a surface, and an object
to create a shadow.
- You can change a shadows size by manipulating the
distance between the object and the light.
- You can change a shadows length by manipulating
the angle between the surface and the light.
- You can change a shadows position by manipulating
the position of the light source or the position of the object.
- Shadows naturally change position during the day
since the sun’s relative position in the sky changes.
Unwrapped Major Skills:
- Student will be able to create shadows.
- Students will be able to manipulate the length of
- Students will be able to manipulate the size of a
- Students will be able to manipulate the position
of a shadow.
- Students will be able to make inferences about
the time of day based on the relative position of the sun.
- All object cast shadows.
- When you shine a light on a solid object it
always casts a shadow.
Strategies That Work:
Letting students lead the
discussion with the teacher acting as a guide, allowing students to experiment
and then demonstrate their findings, bringing students outside and allowing
them to experience the effects of sunlight and shadows, allowing students to
work together cooperatively, encouraging students to record data and use math
skills to quantify data.
Light, shadow, surface,
object, opaque, transparent, measure, length, centimeter, inch, sundial,
Nothing Sticks Like a Shadow,
Me and My Shadows, Elizabeth
Overview of Lessons:
Lesson One: Students
will determine what is needed to make a shadow.
Lesson Two: Students
will determine the necessary order for the surface, shadow, and object to
create a shadow.
Lesson Three: Students
determine that not all objects cast shadows.
Lesson Four: Students
learn to manipulate the position of shadows.
Lesson Five: Students
learn to why shadows move outside.
Lesson Six: Students
use their knowledge of how shadows move outside to make sundials.
Lesson Seven: Students
learn to manipulate the size of shadows.
Lesson Eight: Students
will learn to manipulate the length of shadows.
Lesson Nine: Students
will learn to manipulate the light source so that the shadow disappears.
Lesson Ten: Students
will experiment with making shadows with two light sources.
Students will play “Shadow Simon Says”, a game which will allow the
teacher to assess their understanding of all the concepts they have learned in
Lesson One: What do we
need to make shadows?
- Students will understand that a shadow will
mirror its object.
- Students will understand that to make a shadow a
light source, an object, and a surface are needed.
Vocabulary: shade, shadow, object, light, surface
Materials: outside are
on a sunny day or an indoor light source in a darkened room, paper for students
to draw, pencils
- Explain to students that they will be learning
about shadows. Ask them if they can tell you what a shadow is. Listen and
- Ask them if they know how to make a shadow. After
a few responses tell them this is what you will be learning about today.
- Take the students to a place where they will be
able to make shadows, such as outside on a sunny day or in a dark room in
front of an overhead projector with the light pointed at a plain surface
(outside works best).
- Have students fact the light source (sun or
artificial). Ask them where their shadow is (behind them). Then tell them
to turn around and see if their shadow remains behind them. See if they
can explain why their shadow is always behind them.
- Encourage them to move around. Have the students
explain what happens to their shadow when they move.
- Ask them to look at their shadow and explain the
difference between the area with the shadow and the area around the
shadow. Ask why they think the shadow is darker than the area around it.
- Explain that a shadow is the dark area on a
surface when light cannot reach it. Ask the student to look at their
shadow and identify the three things you need to make a shadow. (light,
and item to block the light, and a surface for the shadow to fall on)
- Ask the students in they can identify those three
things specifically needed to make their shadow right now. (sun or
overhead light, their body to block the light, and the ground or wall as
the surface for the shadow to fall on.
- Bring students back inside and have them draw a
picture of how they made their shadow.
Lesson Two: Positioning
light, objects, and surfaces to create shadows.
- Students will understand the order in which
light, the object, and a surface must fall to create a shadow.
for each group, black construction paper, white paper, white crayons, glue
- Review with students what is needed to make a
shadow (light, an object to block the light, and a surface for the shadow
to fall on).
- Ask if they think these objects need to be in any
specific order to make a shadow, or if you can position them anywhere.
Tell them that today you will be doing an experiment to test this out.
Break the students into groups of three. Pass out a sheet of black paper
to each student, and then a white crayon and a flashlight to each group.
- Tell them they will be experimenting with how to
make a shadow. They will be using the flashlight for light, their hands as
the object to block the light, and the black paper as the surface. Tell
them to experiment with putting these objects in different orders to make
hand shadows. Allow time for exploration.
- After sufficient time has passed, ask if the
students found any way to position the three things to make shadows. As
they offer ideas, model them yourself in front of the class so everyone
can see. This discussion should be led by the students, however the
teacher should guide the class to reach the conclusion that to make a
shadow you need to place the object between the light and the surface.
- After this conclusion is reached, the students
can go back to their seats and make hand shadows. They can experiment with
making different shapes with their fingers and watching the shadows follow
their fingers. **Note: The
teacher may want to model here how to take turns with the flashlight.
- After students have had a few minutes to explore,
they can make hand shadow prints. To do this one student holds the
flashlight so it shines on the black paper. Another student put their hand
between the paper and the light with their fingers spread wide. The third
student traces the shadow with the white crayon. The student holding the
flashlight should be instructed not to move it. After the hand is traced
the students take turns so each of them have a traced shadow of their
- Finally the students can cut out the hand traced
on the black paper and use the glue stick to glue it on the white paper.
Lesson Three: Do all
objects make shadows?
- Students will understand that a shadow is the
result of an object blocking light from falling on a surface.
- Students will be able to understand why not all
objects cast shadows.
Vocabulary: opaque, translucent
Materials: book, a
sheet of plastic wrap, a clear plastic cup, a coin, a pencil, flashlight, a piece of chart paper titled “Does Light
Shine Through It?” with a chart featuring the objects in bold, marker, Shadow
- Review with students what a shadow is, and what
object you need to create a shadow. Discuss the necessary order in which
the light, object, and surface need to fall the make shadows.
- Ask the students if they think all object make
shadows? Encourage student to think and predict. Remind them that a shadow
is cast when and object blocks light from falling on a surface.
- Tell the students this is what we will be
experimenting with today. Show the students the objects that they will be
experimenting with (book, a sheet of plastic wrap, a clear plastic cup, a
coin, a pencil).
- Remind the students that a shadow is cast when an
object blocks light from falling on a surface. Ask the student if they
think these objects will block light. After they make predictions for each
object shine the light though it (not on a surface yet) and see if light
can pass through and be seen on the other side. Fill out results on a
piece of chart paper with a chart titled “Does Light Shine Through It?”.
Does Light Shine Through It?
Clear plastic cup
- Remind the students again that a shadow is cast
when an object prevents light from falling on a surface. Have them go back
to their desks and fill out the Shadow Prediction worksheet.
- After they have had time to do that, ask what
predictions they made and why they made those predictions. Then tell the
student we will be testing their predictions. Have one student come up to
the front to be the flashlight holder and another to be the object holder.
Turn on a lamp or overhead projector so that it shines on a wall. Have the
student in charge of holding objects choose one object at a time to put
between the light and the surface. Remind students that this order is
- As each object is tested the students should
record the results on their prediction sheet.
- After all objects have been tested ask the
students why they think some objects had shadows but others did not. Guide
this discussion to reach the conclusion that if light passes through an
object it will not cast a shadow because a shadow is only made when an
object stops light from hitting a surface. Reference the chart you made as a class when you tested
objects and point out that all the objects which let light pass through
also did not cast shadows.
Lesson Four: Do Shadows
- The students will understand that
projector, flashlights, paper cups
- Review the previous less on the students (what is
a shadow, do all objects cast shadows, what three things do we need to
- Ask the student if they think shadows can move.
Gather several responses. Tell the students that today you will be
studying how shadows move. Turn on the overhead projector in a darkened
room and point it toward the wall. Have the students take turns casting
shadows on the wall and ask them if they can make their shadows move. They
students will most likely move their bodies. Then challenge them the make
their shadow move without moving their bodies. Tell them today we will see
how a shadow can move even when the object casting the shadow is still.
- Have the students break up into groups of three.
Give each group a flashlight and a cup. Tell the students to place the cup
on the middle of a desk. Then tell them to take turns holding the
flashlight and seeing if they can get the shadow to move without moving
the cup. Give them time to experiment, monitor to make sure each student
has a chance holding the flashlight.
- After time has passed, ask the students if they
were able to move. Guide their responses to reach the conclusion that you
can get the shadow to move without moving the object if you move the light
source (flashlight). Ask the
students if they think this will be true for any object that casts a
shadow, or just the cup. List to a few responses.
- Test the theory with different objects. The class
should see that this is true with all objects which cast a shadow. Ask the
students if they can explain why that shadow moves when the light moves.
Remind them that a shadow is the result of an object blocking light. Lead
their responses to the conclusion that the shadow moves when the light
moves because the shadow always has to be on the opposite side of the
object since that is where the light cannot reach the surface.
- Play the “Shadow Prediction Game” with the
students. Have one student stand in an open are with the room darkened.
Choose one student to hold a flashlight (turned off) and point it at the
student standing. Then choose another student to predict where the shadow
will fall once the flashlight is turned on. Provide an opportunity for
almost all the children to participate.
Lesson Five: Why Do
Shadows Move Outside
- Students will understand that shadows outside
move because of the sun’s relative position in the sky.
Materials: sunny day,
access to a paved sunny spot which can remain undisturbed for several hours,
orange traffic cone (or any other object which will stand tall on pavement for
several hours), chalk
Procedure: **Note: It
is best to start this lesson in the morning since it requires you to revisit
the experiment after several hours.
- Review the previous lesson with the students. Ask
them how you can get a shadow to move without moving the object. After a
few responses you can play the Shadow Prediction game to reinforce these
concepts from the previous lesson.
- Ask the students if they think that the shadow of
a tree can move. Lead a discussion of where light comes from which creates
the shadow of a tree. Once the students realize that the light source is
the sun and not something they can manipulate, ask if they think the
shadow can still move.
- Tell the students that today you will be doing an
experiment to test this idea. Ask them first to predict whether or not the
shadow will move.
- Bring the students outside to a paved area which
can remain undisturbed for several hours. Place the cone (or a reasonable
substitute) on the pavement and ask the students to observe the shadow it
casts. Ask them if they can see it moving, or if they can think of any way
to make it move without moving the cone.
- Trace the shadow with chalk and write the time
next to it. Tell the students you are going to leave the cone in this
exact spot for a few hours, and then come back and check it again later.
Ask for predictions about what you will see.
- Come back after a few hours and revisit the cone
setup. Ask the students to look at the shadow and see if anything has
changed. Discuss how much the shadow moved and in which direction it has
moved. Ask the students if they have any ideas about why it moved, or
predictions about whether or not it will continue to move. Trace the
location of the shadow again and write the current time next to that
- Visit the shadow one last time a few hours later.
Ask the students to look at the shadow and see if anything has changed.
Discuss how much the shadow moved and in which direction it has moved. Ask
the students if they have any ideas about why it moved, or predictions
about whether or not it will continue to move.
- Move back inside to the classroom. Remind
students of their previous experiment with the flashlight and their hands.
In that experiment they learned that when the object is still, the show
will only move when the light moves. Ask for guesses about why the shadow
of the cone moved. Guide a discussion to reach the conclusion that the
shadow moved because the light source (the sun) was moving. The student
should reach the conclusion that all shadows move outside because the suns
position shifts in the sky (be careful here not to say the sun moves in
Lesson Six: Sundials
- Students will monitor the changes in the position
of shadows outside as the day goes on.
- Students will understand the link between the how
people used sundials to tell time many years ago, and how we use modern
watches and clocks.
construction paper, clay, new pencils, markers, paperweights (any object will
do, 4 per child), sunny day, access to a paved sunny area
- Review the previous lesson with the students. Ask
them to explain how shadows can move when the object is still, and how the
shadows of objects outside can move during the day.
- Ask the students how we tell time (watches,
clocks). Explain that many yeas ago people did not have watches or clocks,
and ask for guesses concerning how people told time back then. Lead the
discussion to reach the conclusion that people watched the movements of
the sun to track time.
- Ask the students to describe the way that the
shadow of the cone moved during the day. Explain to the students that
before people had clocks they used the movement of shadows on something
called a sundial to tell time. Explain that since the suns position
relative to the earth changes gradually, this created slow-moving shadows
which could indicate the time. Tell the students that today they will be
making their own sundials.
- Give each student a piece of white construction
paper. Tell them to put their name on it in small letters on the front.
Then tell them to put a small dot in the center of their paper.
- Bring the class outside. Give each student a
piece of clay and a new pencil. Have the students stand in a straight line
shoulder to shoulder all facing in the same direction. Tell them to place
their papers on the ground, and distribute the paperweights so the
students can place them in the corners of the paper.
- Pass out the clay, one marker, and one pencil to
each student. Tell the students to place the clay on the dot in the center
of the paper, and then stick the pencil in the clay so it stands straight
up. The students should look at the shadow that the pencil casts, and
trace it with a marker. Next the shadow tracing they should write the
current time. Ask the students for predictions about how the shadow of the
pencil will change during the day. Return inside. (If the papers will not
be safe where they are, the students may bring them back inside, as long
as when they are brought back outside later they can be put in the same
place and position.)
- Revisit the sundials as often as possible
throughout the day. Each time you come out, trace the new shadow and write
the current time next to it. Bring the sundials back inside after several
- The students should study and discuss their
sundials. Point out how the shadow and times recorded travel in a circular
pattern around the clock, just like the numbers on our modern day watches
Lesson Seven: Shadows Big
- Students will understand the relationship between
the distance between the light and the object, and the size of the shadow
that the object casts.
- Review the previous lessons and discuss the
different ways that shadows move. Ask the student to explain the different
ways that shadows change, besides moving from one place to another. Guide
the discussion to the conclusion that shadows can also change by becoming
bigger and smaller.
- Ask the students for some ideas about how you can
make shadows cast by the same object bigger or smaller. Listen to their
thoughts, and then tell the students that they will have a chance to
experiment with this idea. Break them up into teams and give each team a
tangram and a flashlight. Tell them to see if they can find a way to make
the shadow of the tangram bigger or smaller. Allow time for them to
- After enough time has passed ask the students if
they have figured it out. Allow them to come up to the front of the room
and demonstrate what they did by casting shadows on the board while the
room is darkened. After several students have demonstrated different
techniques, start a discussion about what worked and what didn’t work.
- Lead this discussion to reach the conclusion that
the closer the light and the object are, the large the shadow gets. Make
sure to point out that this means we can keep the object where it is and
bring the light closer, OR we can keep the light where is and bring the
object closer. Demonstrate this in front of the class.
- Play another shadow prediction game with the
students. Have one student stand with a flashlight pointed at the board.
Choose two students to stand between the flashlight and the board with the
same tangram shape, but at different distances from the light. Have the
students predict which shadow will be larger, and then tell the student
with the flashlight to turn it on. Students can see if their predictions
were correct. Repeat this until all students have had the opportunity to
Lesson Eight: Shadows
Short and Long
- Students will understand the relationship between
the angle that the light comes from and the length of a shadow.
difference, angle, measure, centimeters, cm, length
flashlights, paper cups, Long and Short Shadow Recording Sheet, rulers, tape
- Review the previous lesson with students. Discuss
how they now know to change shadows in two different ways. Review the way
to make shadows change position, as well as how to make them larger or
- Ask the class if they can think of any other ways
to change shadows. Ask them if they have even gone outside and seen that
everything makes a very long shadow, and then been in the same place at
another time and the shadows were very short. After several responses tell
them that today you will be experimenting with how to make shadows longer
- Ask the students if they have any ideas about how
to make a shadow longer. Brainstorm and then tell students it is now time
for them to try it out.
- Break up the students into teams. Give each team
a flashlight, a ruler, and a paper cup, and tell them to take turns making
a shadow of the cup on the desk. After they make the shadow they should
try to figure out how to make the shadow on the desk longer and shorter.
When they have figured out how, they should illustrate the shadows on
their Long and Short Shadow Recording Sheet, and then fill out their
explanation of what they figured out. On the recording sheet they should
also measure the two shadows (in centimeters) and find the difference in
their length. You might need to remind them that we use subtraction to
find the difference between two numbers.
- Tape a paper cup to the board. After they have
had time to fill out their sheets, ask the class what they came up with.
Students can take turns coming up and demonstrating their technique. After
several teams have shared, lead a discussion about what worked and what
did not work. Lead this discussion to the conclusion that the angle that
the light shines on the cup is what determines the length of the shadow
(the smaller the angel from the surface, the longer the shadow is.
- Hold the flashlight at a variety of different
angles and ask the students to predict whether the shadow will be long or
Long and Short Shadows Recording Sheet
My Short Shadow
My Long Shadow
It is ________cm long.
It is ________cm long.
A number sentence to show the
______cm = _________cm
My long shadow is _______cm
longer than my long shadow.
Lesson Nine: Disappearing
- Students will understand that when a light source
in directly overhead, the object will cast a minimal shadow.
- Students will use their understanding of that
concept to infer at what point in the day their bodies will cast minimal
Materials: sunny day,
paper cup, flashlight, “Can my Shadow Disappear?” worksheet, yardstick, pencils
You will have to go outside the day before this lesson to determine at what
time of the day the sun is directly overhead, creating the least shadow
- Review what students have learned so far about
the ways they can manipulate shadows (size, length, location).
- Ask the students if they can imagine any way to
make a shadow disappear while the light is still shining on the object.
Listen to a variety of responses.
- Explain to the students that today they will be
experimenting with how to make a shadow disappear. Divide them into groups
and pass out a paper cup and a flashlight to each group. Instruct them to
take turns holding the flashlight and seeing if they can make the shadow
disappear completely form the surface of the desk. Monitor their efforts,
and if they need help remind them that in the last lesson we learned that
the shadows were shortest when the angle between the surface and the light
- Allow plenty of time for the students to come up
with solutions (they may not simply remove the cup from the table).
- Call the class together for a discussion and ask
several teams to come up to the front of the class and model their ideas.
After a few volunteers, point out that as the angle between the surface
and the light increased, the shadow became shorter and shorter.
Demonstrate that if you continue that trend until the light is directly
above the object shining down, the shadow disappears. Model this for the
class, and then allow them briefly to return to their desks to try it for
- After they have had the opportunity to see this
for themselves, start another discussion. Ask them to remember what the
source of light was that casts shadows outside (sun). Ask them to imagine
that they went outside on a sunny day, and when they look down there is no
shadow. See if they can imagine where the sun would have to be at that
point. If they have difficulty with this, model it with the cup and the
flashlight again to demonstrate that the sun would have to be directly
above them if there was no shadow.
- Take the children outside at a time when their
bodies will cast shadows, have them work in pairs to measure their shadows
and record them on their “Can my Shadow Disappear?” worksheet. Ask them
how they predict their shadows will be different when the sun is directly
- Take the children outside during the time of day
when the sun is directly overhead. Instruct them to stand up straight with
their feet together and their arms by their sides. Tell them to look
around and see what their shadows look like. As them to explain why the
shadows appear that way in their own words.
Can My Shadow Disappear?
My Shadow at _______
My Shadow at _______
My shadow is _____inches
My shadow is ______inches long.
A number sentence which shows
the difference is:
_____in - _____in = ______in
In the middle of the day my
shadow was ____inches shorter.
Lesson Ten: Disappearing
- Students will understand how to make two shadows
with two lights.
- Students will understand how to use two lights to
flashlights, paper cups, “Making Shadows With Two Lights” recording sheet,
- Review the last lesson with the students. Discuss
how they were able to make the shadows disappear with the flashlight, and
why their own shadows were hard to see when the sun was overhead. Lead
their discussion to the conclusion that the shadows disappeared when the
light was directly overhead because at that point no light was being
blocked from the visible part of the surface.
- Tell the students that today we will be
experimenting with using two lights at once to do different things with
shadows. Ask them what they think will happen when you use two flashlights
at once and shine them on the cup. Listen to a few responses and tell them
its time to find out. Divide them into teams and send them to their desks
with two flashlights per team and a paper cup.
- Tell the students you want to them to try to make
two shadows at once. They can experiment with having two different people
hold the lights, or having one person hold both lights. If they are able
to make two shadows at once, they should record a picture of it on their
“Making Shadows With Two Lights” recording sheet.
- After enough time has passed ask the student to
come up and demonstrate different ways that they made two shadows with two
lights. Ask the students if they can explain why two shadows can be made
with two lights. Lead the discussion to reach the conclusion that if there
are two sources of light, light will also be blocked from two directions.
- Ask the students to predict what would happen if
you added in a third light.
- Now tell the student that they should go back to
their desks and see if they can find a way to use the two lights shining
on the cup to make no shadow. Also tell them that this time the lights
cannot be shining directly overhead. Watch them and provide assistance
while they experiment. If the students are able to use both lights and not
create a shadow they should record it on their “Making Shadows with Two Lights”
- After sufficient time, allow several groups to
show their techniques. Lead a discussion about what worked and what didn’t
work. The conclusion should be reached that if one light shines on the
shadow that the first light created, there will be no shadow. Explain to
the children that since a shadow is made when light can’t reach a surface,
if we shine another light on that surface the shadow will disappear.
- Ask the students to explain this in their own
words. Have one student cast a shadow with a flashlight and then challenge
another student to find the place to shine the light so that shadow
Making Shadows with Two Lights
Shadow Simon Says
flashlights, paper cups
- Review all the ways the student have learned to
manipulate shadows (length, size, position). Review how shadows outside
are affected by the different relative position of the sun.
- Tell the students that today they will be playing
a game using all the things they have learned about shadows. Break them up
into pairs and tell them they will be playing Shadow Simon Says. One
person will be Simon, and they will say a type of shadow to make. For
example: make a long shadow, make a big shadow, make a shadow that goes to
the right of the cup, place the light so there is no shadow.
- Before the students begin playing, model this for
them in the front of the class with a volunteer.
- Give each pair a cup and a flashlight and tell
them to begin playing. Monitor them for a while until you are sure they
have the hang of it. Mention that you will be joining in to play with some
of the groups.
- Go around to each group and ask if you can play.
Ask each child to make a shadow which varies in size, position, and
length. Also ask them to make inferences about the time of day and the
position of the sun. For example: Pretend the flashlight is the sun, and
show me how the sun could shine on the cup so that there would be no
- Assess the student by seeing how effectively they
can manipulate the shadows with the flashlight (3 aspects of assessment),
as well as how well they understand the effect of the suns relative
position on shadows (last aspect of assessment). There are four aspects in
total, and these will determine the student’s achievement on the
The student shows no understanding of any of the
four aspects of assessment.
The student shows understanding of one aspect of
The student shows understanding of two aspects of
The student shows understanding of three aspects of
The student shows understanding of all four aspects